blob: 84921f0157d54097997e4d1181a367d4584b0dbd [file] [log] [blame]
This is, produced by makeinfo version 5.1 from m4.texi.
This manual (22 September 2013) is for GNU M4 (version 1.4.17), a
package containing an implementation of the m4 macro language.
Copyright (C) 1989-1994, 2004-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and
no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License."
INFO-DIR-SECTION Text creation and manipulation
* M4: (m4). A powerful macro processor.

File:, Node: Copying This Manual, Next: Indices, Prev: Copying This Package, Up: Top
Appendix B How to make copies of this manual
This appendix covers the license for copying this manual. Note that
some of the longer examples in this manual are also distributed in the
directory 'm4-1.4.17/examples/', where a more permissive license is in
effect when copying just the examples.
* Menu:
* GNU Free Documentation License:: License for copying this manual

File:, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Up: Copying This Manual
B.1 License for copying this manual
Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
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File:, Node: Indices, Prev: Copying This Manual, Up: Top
Appendix C Indices of concepts and macros
* Menu:
* Macro index:: Index for all 'm4' macros
* Concept index:: Index for many concepts

File:, Node: Macro index, Next: Concept index, Up: Indices
C.1 Index for all 'm4' macros
This index covers all 'm4' builtins, as well as several useful composite
macros. References are exclusively to the places where a macro is
introduced the first time.
* Menu:
* __file__: Location. (line 9)
* __gnu__: Platform macros. (line 11)
* __line__: Location. (line 10)
* __os2__: Platform macros. (line 12)
* __program__: Location. (line 11)
* __unix__: Platform macros. (line 14)
* __windows__: Platform macros. (line 16)
* argn: Shift. (line 255)
* array: Define. (line 55)
* array_set: Define. (line 56)
* builtin: Builtin. (line 8)
* capitalize: Patsubst. (line 54)
* changecom: Changecom. (line 9)
* changequote: Changequote. (line 9)
* changeword: Changeword. (line 22)
* cleardivert: Cleardivert. (line 25)
* cond: Shift. (line 51)
* copy: Composition. (line 119)
* curry: Composition. (line 67)
* debugfile: Debug Output. (line 10)
* debugmode: Debug Levels. (line 77)
* decr: Incr. (line 10)
* define: Define. (line 9)
* define_blind: Composition. (line 10)
* defn: Defn. (line 9)
* divert: Divert. (line 8)
* divnum: Divnum. (line 8)
* dnl: Dnl. (line 8)
* downcase: Patsubst. (line 53)
* dquote: Shift. (line 193)
* dquote_elt: Shift. (line 194)
* dumpdef: Dumpdef. (line 9)
* errprint: Errprint. (line 8)
* esyscmd: Esyscmd. (line 8)
* eval: Eval. (line 8)
* example: Manual. (line 39)
* exch: Arguments. (line 12)
* fatal_error: M4exit. (line 24)
* foreach: Foreach. (line 8)
* foreachq: Foreach. (line 9)
* forloop: Forloop. (line 8)
* format: Format. (line 8)
* ifdef: Ifdef. (line 9)
* ifelse: Ifelse. (line 10)
* ifelse <1>: Ifelse. (line 11)
* ifelse <2>: Ifelse. (line 12)
* include: Include. (line 8)
* incr: Incr. (line 9)
* index: Index macro. (line 8)
* indir: Indir. (line 8)
* join: Shift. (line 101)
* joinall: Shift. (line 102)
* len: Len. (line 8)
* m4exit: M4exit. (line 9)
* m4wrap: M4wrap. (line 13)
* maketemp: Mkstemp. (line 11)
* mkstemp: Mkstemp. (line 10)
* nargs: Pseudo Arguments. (line 12)
* os2: Platform macros. (line 13)
* patsubst: Patsubst. (line 8)
* popdef: Pushdef. (line 11)
* pushdef: Pushdef. (line 10)
* quote: Shift. (line 192)
* regexp: Regexp. (line 8)
* rename: Composition. (line 120)
* reverse: Shift. (line 31)
* shift: Shift. (line 16)
* sinclude: Include. (line 9)
* stack_foreach: Stacks. (line 11)
* stack_foreach_lifo: Stacks. (line 12)
* stack_foreach_sep: Improved copy. (line 15)
* stack_foreach_sep_lifo: Improved copy. (line 16)
* substr: Substr. (line 8)
* syscmd: Syscmd. (line 8)
* sysval: Sysval. (line 8)
* traceoff: Trace. (line 10)
* traceon: Trace. (line 9)
* translit: Translit. (line 8)
* undefine: Undefine. (line 8)
* undivert: Undivert. (line 8)
* unix: Platform macros. (line 15)
* upcase: Patsubst. (line 52)
* windows: Platform macros. (line 17)

File:, Node: Concept index, Prev: Macro index, Up: Indices
C.2 Index for many concepts
* Menu:
* argument currying: Composition. (line 63)
* arguments to macros: Macro Arguments. (line 6)
* arguments to macros <1>: Arguments. (line 6)
* arguments to macros, special: Pseudo Arguments. (line 6)
* arguments, joining: Shift. (line 98)
* arguments, more than nine: Arguments. (line 54)
* arguments, more than nine <1>: Shift. (line 250)
* arguments, more than nine <2>: Improved foreach. (line 156)
* arguments, quoted macro: Quoting Arguments. (line 6)
* arguments, reversing: Shift. (line 31)
* arithmetic: Arithmetic. (line 6)
* arrays: Define. (line 52)
* avoiding quadratic behavior: Improved foreach. (line 38)
* basic regular expressions: Regexp. (line 6)
* basic regular expressions <1>: Patsubst. (line 6)
* blind macro: Inhibiting Invocation.
(line 13)
* blind macro <1>: Ifelse. (line 52)
* blind macro <2>: Composition. (line 10)
* bug reports: Bugs. (line 6)
* builtins, indirect call of: Builtin. (line 6)
* builtins, special tokens: Defn. (line 101)
* call of builtins, indirect: Builtin. (line 6)
* call of macros, indirect: Indir. (line 6)
* case statement: Ifelse. (line 69)
* changing comment delimiters: Changecom. (line 6)
* changing quote delimiters: Changequote. (line 6)
* changing syntax: Changeword. (line 6)
* characters, translating: Translit. (line 6)
* command line: Invoking m4. (line 6)
* command line, file names on the: Command line files. (line 6)
* command line, macro definitions on the: Preprocessor features.
(line 6)
* command line, options: Invoking m4. (line 10)
* commands, exit status from shell: Sysval. (line 6)
* commands, running shell: Shell commands. (line 6)
* comment delimiters, changing: Changecom. (line 6)
* comments: Comments. (line 6)
* comments, copied to output: Changecom. (line 29)
* comparing strings: Ifelse. (line 6)
* compatibility: Compatibility. (line 6)
* composing macros: Composition. (line 6)
* concatenating arguments: Shift. (line 98)
* conditional, short-circuiting: Shift. (line 51)
* conditionals: Ifdef. (line 6)
* controlling debugging output: Debug Levels. (line 6)
* copying macros: Composition. (line 116)
* counting loops: Forloop. (line 6)
* currying arguments: Composition. (line 63)
* debugging macros: Debugging. (line 6)
* debugging output, controlling: Debug Levels. (line 6)
* debugging output, saving: Debug Output. (line 6)
* decrement operator: Incr. (line 6)
* deferring expansion: M4wrap. (line 6)
* deferring output: Diversions. (line 6)
* defining new macros: Definitions. (line 6)
* definition stack: Pushdef. (line 6)
* definition stack <1>: Stacks. (line 6)
* definitions, displaying macro: Defn. (line 6)
* definitions, displaying macro <1>: Dumpdef. (line 6)
* deleting macros: Undefine. (line 6)
* deleting whitespace in input: Dnl. (line 6)
* delimiters, changing: Changequote. (line 6)
* delimiters, changing <1>: Changecom. (line 6)
* discarding diverted text: Cleardivert. (line 6)
* discarding input: Ifelse. (line 6)
* discarding input <1>: Dnl. (line 6)
* discarding input <2>: Divert. (line 42)
* displaying macro definitions: Dumpdef. (line 6)
* diversion numbers: Divnum. (line 6)
* diverted text, discarding: Cleardivert. (line 6)
* diverting output to files: Divert. (line 6)
* dumping into frozen file: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* error messages, printing: Errprint. (line 6)
* errors, fatal: Operation modes. (line 19)
* evaluation, of integer expressions: Eval. (line 6)
* examples, understanding: Manual. (line 6)
* executing shell commands: Shell commands. (line 6)
* exit status from shell commands: Sysval. (line 6)
* exiting from 'm4': M4exit. (line 6)
* expansion of macros: Macro expansion. (line 6)
* expansion, deferring: M4wrap. (line 6)
* expansion, tracing macro: Trace. (line 6)
* expressions, evaluation of integer: Eval. (line 6)
* expressions, regular: Regexp. (line 6)
* expressions, regular <1>: Patsubst. (line 6)
* extracting substrings: Substr. (line 6)
* fast loading of frozen files: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* fatal errors: Operation modes. (line 19)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* file format, frozen file: Frozen file format. (line 6)
* file inclusion: File Inclusion. (line 6)
* file inclusion <1>: Undivert. (line 13)
* file inclusion <2>: Undivert. (line 89)
* file names, on the command line: Command line files. (line 6)
* files, diverting output to: Divert. (line 6)
* files, names of temporary: Mkstemp. (line 6)
* for each loops: Foreach. (line 6)
* for loops: Forloop. (line 6)
* formatted output: Format. (line 6)
* Free Documentation License (FDL), GNU: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* frozen file format: Frozen file format. (line 6)
* frozen files for fast loading: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* General Public License (GPL), GNU: GNU General Public License.
(line 6)
* GNU extensions: Inhibiting Invocation.
(line 13)
* GNU extensions <1>: Define. (line 41)
* GNU extensions <2>: Arguments. (line 54)
* GNU extensions <3>: Indir. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <4>: Builtin. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <5>: Debug Levels. (line 74)
* GNU extensions <6>: Debug Output. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <7>: Search Path. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <8>: Divert. (line 54)
* GNU extensions <9>: Undivert. (line 13)
* GNU extensions <10>: Undivert. (line 89)
* GNU extensions <11>: Regexp. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <12>: Patsubst. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <13>: Format. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <14>: Eval. (line 113)
* GNU extensions <15>: Esyscmd. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <16>: Mkstemp. (line 58)
* GNU extensions <17>: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* GNU extensions <18>: Extensions. (line 6)
* GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License.
(line 6)
* GNU General Public License: GNU General Public License.
(line 6)
* GNU M4, history of: History. (line 6)
* GPL, GNU General Public License: GNU General Public License.
(line 6)
* history of 'm4': History. (line 6)
* included files, search path for: Search Path. (line 6)
* inclusion, of files: File Inclusion. (line 6)
* inclusion, of files <1>: Undivert. (line 13)
* inclusion, of files <2>: Undivert. (line 89)
* increment operator: Incr. (line 6)
* indirect call of builtins: Builtin. (line 6)
* indirect call of macros: Indir. (line 6)
* initialization, frozen state: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* input location: Preprocessor features.
(line 28)
* input location <1>: Location. (line 6)
* input tokens: Syntax. (line 6)
* input, discarding: Ifelse. (line 6)
* input, discarding <1>: Dnl. (line 6)
* input, discarding <2>: Divert. (line 42)
* input, saving: M4wrap. (line 6)
* integer arithmetic: Arithmetic. (line 6)
* integer expression evaluation: Eval. (line 6)
* invoking 'm4': Invoking m4. (line 6)
* invoking macros: Invocation. (line 6)
* iterating over lists: Foreach. (line 6)
* joining arguments: Shift. (line 98)
* length of strings: Len. (line 6)
* lexical structure of words: Changeword. (line 6)
* License, code: Copying This Package.
(line 6)
* License, manual: Copying This Manual. (line 6)
* limit, nesting: Limits control. (line 43)
* literal output: Pseudo Arguments. (line 106)
* local variables: Pushdef. (line 79)
* location, input: Preprocessor features.
(line 28)
* location, input <1>: Location. (line 6)
* loops: Shift. (line 10)
* loops, counting: Forloop. (line 6)
* loops, list iteration: Foreach. (line 6)
* 'M4PATH': Search Path. (line 9)
* macro composition: Composition. (line 6)
* macro definitions, on the command line: Preprocessor features.
(line 6)
* macro expansion, tracing: Trace. (line 6)
* macro invocation: Invocation. (line 6)
* macro, blind: Inhibiting Invocation.
(line 13)
* macro, blind <1>: Ifelse. (line 52)
* macro, blind <2>: Composition. (line 10)
* macros, arguments to: Macro Arguments. (line 6)
* macros, arguments to <1>: Arguments. (line 6)
* macros, copying: Composition. (line 116)
* macros, debugging: Debugging. (line 6)
* macros, displaying definitions: Defn. (line 6)
* macros, displaying definitions <1>: Dumpdef. (line 6)
* macros, expansion of: Macro expansion. (line 6)
* macros, how to define new: Definitions. (line 6)
* macros, how to delete: Undefine. (line 6)
* macros, how to rename: Defn. (line 6)
* macros, indirect call of: Indir. (line 6)
* macros, quoted arguments to: Quoting Arguments. (line 6)
* macros, recursive: Shift. (line 6)
* macros, special arguments to: Pseudo Arguments. (line 6)
* macros, temporary redefinition of: Pushdef. (line 6)
* manipulating quotes: Shift. (line 189)
* messages, printing error: Errprint. (line 6)
* more than nine arguments: Arguments. (line 54)
* more than nine arguments <1>: Shift. (line 250)
* more than nine arguments <2>: Improved foreach. (line 156)
* multibranches: Ifelse. (line 69)
* names: Names. (line 6)
* nesting limit: Limits control. (line 43)
* nine arguments, more than: Arguments. (line 54)
* nine arguments, more than <1>: Shift. (line 250)
* nine arguments, more than <2>: Improved foreach. (line 156)
* numbers: Manual. (line 57)
* options, command line: Invoking m4. (line 10)
* output, diverting to files: Divert. (line 6)
* output, formatted: Format. (line 6)
* output, literal: Pseudo Arguments. (line 106)
* output, saving debugging: Debug Output. (line 6)
* overview of 'm4': Intro. (line 6)
* pattern substitution: Patsubst. (line 6)
* platform macros: Platform macros. (line 6)
* positional parameters, more than nine: Arguments. (line 54)
* POSIX: Extensions. (line 6)
* 'POSIXLY_CORRECT': Invoking m4. (line 10)
* 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' <1>: Incompatibilities. (line 144)
* preprocessor features: Preprocessor features.
(line 6)
* printing error messages: Errprint. (line 6)
* pushdef stack: Pushdef. (line 6)
* pushdef stack <1>: Stacks. (line 6)
* quadratic behavior, avoiding: Improved foreach. (line 38)
* quote delimiters, changing: Changequote. (line 6)
* quote manipulation: Shift. (line 189)
* quoted macro arguments: Quoting Arguments. (line 6)
* quoted string: Quoted strings. (line 6)
* quoting rule of thumb: Quoting Arguments. (line 22)
* recursive macros: Shift. (line 6)
* redefinition of macros, temporary: Pushdef. (line 6)
* regular expressions: Changeword. (line 6)
* regular expressions <1>: Regexp. (line 6)
* regular expressions <2>: Patsubst. (line 6)
* reloading a frozen file: Using frozen files. (line 6)
* renaming macros: Defn. (line 6)
* renaming macros <1>: Composition. (line 116)
* reporting bugs: Bugs. (line 6)
* rescanning: Limits control. (line 56)
* rescanning <1>: Inhibiting Invocation.
(line 86)
* rescanning <2>: Pseudo Arguments. (line 106)
* rescanning <3>: Defn. (line 61)
* rescanning <4>: Other Incompatibilities.
(line 52)
* reversing arguments: Shift. (line 31)
* rule of thumb, quoting: Quoting Arguments. (line 22)
* running shell commands: Shell commands. (line 6)
* saving debugging output: Debug Output. (line 6)
* saving input: M4wrap. (line 6)
* search path for included files: Search Path. (line 6)
* shell commands, exit status from: Sysval. (line 6)
* shell commands, running: Shell commands. (line 6)
* short-circuiting conditional: Shift. (line 51)
* special arguments to macros: Pseudo Arguments. (line 6)
* stack, macro definition: Pushdef. (line 6)
* stack, macro definition <1>: Stacks. (line 6)
* standard error, output to: Dumpdef. (line 6)
* standard error, output to <1>: Trace. (line 6)
* standard error, output to <2>: Errprint. (line 6)
* status of shell commands: Sysval. (line 6)
* status, setting 'm4' exit: M4exit. (line 6)
* string, quoted: Quoted strings. (line 6)
* strings, length of: Len. (line 6)
* substitution by regular expression: Patsubst. (line 6)
* substrings, extracting: Substr. (line 6)
* substrings, locating: Index macro. (line 6)
* suggestions, reporting: Bugs. (line 6)
* suppressing warnings: Macro Arguments. (line 38)
* switch statement: Ifelse. (line 69)
* synchronization lines: Preprocessor features.
(line 28)
* syntax, changing: Changeword. (line 6)
* temporary file names: Mkstemp. (line 6)
* temporary redefinition of macros: Pushdef. (line 6)
* 'TMPDIR': Diversions. (line 10)
* tokens: Syntax. (line 6)
* tokens, builtin macro: Defn. (line 101)
* tokens, special: Other tokens. (line 6)
* tracing macro expansion: Trace. (line 6)
* translating characters: Translit. (line 6)
* undefining macros: Undefine. (line 6)
* UNIX commands, exit status from: Sysval. (line 6)
* UNIX commands, running: Shell commands. (line 6)
* variables, local: Pushdef. (line 79)
* warnings, suppressing: Macro Arguments. (line 38)
* words: Names. (line 6)
* words, lexical structure of: Changeword. (line 6)