blob: 1843762953857c3d64dc9ee4ddf71c9734dafe3c [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2010 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
'''StackContext allows applications to maintain threadlocal-like state
that follows execution as it moves to other execution contexts.
The motivating examples are to eliminate the need for explicit
async_callback wrappers (as in tornado.web.RequestHandler), and to
allow some additional context to be kept for logging.
This is slightly magic, but it's an extension of the idea that an exception
handler is a kind of stack-local state and when that stack is suspended
and resumed in a new context that state needs to be preserved. StackContext
shifts the burden of restoring that state from each call site (e.g.
wrapping each AsyncHTTPClient callback in async_callback) to the mechanisms
that transfer control from one context to another (e.g. AsyncHTTPClient
itself, IOLoop, thread pools, etc).
Example usage::
def die_on_error():
except Exception:
logging.error("exception in asynchronous operation",exc_info=True)
with StackContext(die_on_error):
# Any exception thrown here *or in callback and its desendents*
# will cause the process to exit instead of spinning endlessly
# in the ioloop.
http_client.fetch(url, callback)
Most applications shouln't have to work with `StackContext` directly.
Here are a few rules of thumb for when it's necessary:
* If you're writing an asynchronous library that doesn't rely on a
stack_context-aware library like `tornado.ioloop` or `tornado.iostream`
(for example, if you're writing a thread pool), use
`stack_context.wrap()` before any asynchronous operations to capture the
stack context from where the operation was started.
* If you're writing an asynchronous library that has some shared
resources (such as a connection pool), create those shared resources
within a ``with stack_context.NullContext():`` block. This will prevent
``StackContexts`` from leaking from one request to another.
* If you want to write something like an exception handler that will
persist across asynchronous calls, create a new `StackContext` (or
`ExceptionStackContext`), and make your asynchronous calls in a ``with``
block that references your `StackContext`.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, with_statement
import contextlib
import functools
import itertools
import operator
import sys
import threading
from tornado.util import raise_exc_info
class _State(threading.local):
def __init__(self):
self.contexts = ()
_state = _State()
class StackContext(object):
'''Establishes the given context as a StackContext that will be transferred.
Note that the parameter is a callable that returns a context
manager, not the context itself. That is, where for a
non-transferable context manager you would say::
with my_context():
StackContext takes the function itself rather than its result::
with StackContext(my_context):
The result of ``with StackContext() as cb:`` is a deactivation
callback. Run this callback when the StackContext is no longer
needed to ensure that it is not propagated any further (note that
deactivating a context does not affect any instances of that
context that are currently pending). This is an advanced feature
and not necessary in most applications.
def __init__(self, context_factory, _active_cell=None):
self.context_factory = context_factory
self.active_cell = _active_cell or [True]
# Note that some of this code is duplicated in ExceptionStackContext
# below. ExceptionStackContext is more common and doesn't need
# the full generality of this class.
def __enter__(self):
self.old_contexts = _state.contexts
# _state.contexts is a tuple of (class, arg, active_cell) tuples
_state.contexts = (self.old_contexts +
((StackContext, self.context_factory, self.active_cell),))
self.context = self.context_factory()
except Exception:
_state.contexts = self.old_contexts
return lambda: operator.setitem(self.active_cell, 0, False)
def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
return self.context.__exit__(type, value, traceback)
_state.contexts = self.old_contexts
class ExceptionStackContext(object):
'''Specialization of StackContext for exception handling.
The supplied exception_handler function will be called in the
event of an uncaught exception in this context. The semantics are
similar to a try/finally clause, and intended use cases are to log
an error, close a socket, or similar cleanup actions. The
exc_info triple (type, value, traceback) will be passed to the
exception_handler function.
If the exception handler returns true, the exception will be
consumed and will not be propagated to other exception handlers.
def __init__(self, exception_handler, _active_cell=None):
self.exception_handler = exception_handler
self.active_cell = _active_cell or [True]
def __enter__(self):
self.old_contexts = _state.contexts
_state.contexts = (self.old_contexts +
((ExceptionStackContext, self.exception_handler,
return lambda: operator.setitem(self.active_cell, 0, False)
def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
if type is not None:
return self.exception_handler(type, value, traceback)
_state.contexts = self.old_contexts
class NullContext(object):
'''Resets the StackContext.
Useful when creating a shared resource on demand (e.g. an AsyncHTTPClient)
where the stack that caused the creating is not relevant to future
def __enter__(self):
self.old_contexts = _state.contexts
_state.contexts = ()
def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
_state.contexts = self.old_contexts
class _StackContextWrapper(functools.partial):
def wrap(fn):
'''Returns a callable object that will restore the current StackContext
when executed.
Use this whenever saving a callback to be executed later in a
different execution context (either in a different thread or
asynchronously in the same thread).
if fn is None or fn.__class__ is _StackContextWrapper:
return fn
# functools.wraps doesn't appear to work on functools.partial objects
def wrapped(callback, contexts, *args, **kwargs):
if contexts is _state.contexts or not contexts:
callback(*args, **kwargs)
if not _state.contexts:
new_contexts = [cls(arg, active_cell)
for (cls, arg, active_cell) in contexts
if active_cell[0]]
# If we're moving down the stack, _state.contexts is a prefix
# of contexts. For each element of contexts not in that prefix,
# create a new StackContext object.
# If we're moving up the stack (or to an entirely different stack),
# _state.contexts will have elements not in contexts. Use
# NullContext to clear the state and then recreate from contexts.
elif (len(_state.contexts) > len(contexts) or
any(a[1] is not b[1]
for a, b in itertools.izip(_state.contexts, contexts))):
# contexts have been removed or changed, so start over
new_contexts = ([NullContext()] +
[cls(arg, active_cell)
for (cls, arg, active_cell) in contexts
if active_cell[0]])
new_contexts = [cls(arg, active_cell)
for (cls, arg, active_cell) in contexts[len(_state.contexts):]
if active_cell[0]]
if len(new_contexts) > 1:
with _nested(*new_contexts):
callback(*args, **kwargs)
elif new_contexts:
with new_contexts[0]:
callback(*args, **kwargs)
callback(*args, **kwargs)
if _state.contexts:
return _StackContextWrapper(wrapped, fn, _state.contexts)
return _StackContextWrapper(fn)
def _nested(*managers):
"""Support multiple context managers in a single with-statement.
Copied from the python 2.6 standard library. It's no longer present
in python 3 because the with statement natively supports multiple
context managers, but that doesn't help if the list of context
managers is not known until runtime.
exits = []
vars = []
exc = (None, None, None)
for mgr in managers:
exit = mgr.__exit__
enter = mgr.__enter__
yield vars
exc = sys.exc_info()
while exits:
exit = exits.pop()
if exit(*exc):
exc = (None, None, None)
exc = sys.exc_info()
if exc != (None, None, None):
# Don't rely on sys.exc_info() still containing
# the right information. Another exception may
# have been raised and caught by an exit method