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"""Blocking and non-blocking HTTP client interfaces.
This module defines a common interface shared by two implementations,
`simple_httpclient` and `curl_httpclient`. Applications may either
instantiate their chosen implementation class directly or use the
`AsyncHTTPClient` class from this module, which selects an implementation
that can be overridden with the `AsyncHTTPClient.configure` method.
The default implementation is `simple_httpclient`, and this is expected
to be suitable for most users' needs. However, some applications may wish
to switch to `curl_httpclient` for reasons such as the following:
* `curl_httpclient` has some features not found in `simple_httpclient`,
including support for HTTP proxies and the ability to use a specified
network interface.
* `curl_httpclient` is more likely to be compatible with sites that are
not-quite-compliant with the HTTP spec, or sites that use little-exercised
features of HTTP.
* `simple_httpclient` only supports SSL on Python 2.6 and above.
* `curl_httpclient` is faster
* `curl_httpclient` was the default prior to Tornado 2.0.
Note that if you are using `curl_httpclient`, it is highly recommended that
you use a recent version of ``libcurl`` and ``pycurl``. Currently the minimum
supported version is 7.18.2, and the recommended version is 7.21.1 or newer.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, with_statement
import calendar
import email.utils
import httplib
import weakref
from tornado.escape import utf8
from tornado import httputil
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
from tornado.util import import_object, bytes_type, monotime
class HTTPClient(object):
"""A blocking HTTP client.
This interface is provided for convenience and testing; most applications
that are running an IOLoop will want to use `AsyncHTTPClient` instead.
Typical usage looks like this::
http_client = httpclient.HTTPClient()
response = http_client.fetch("")
print response.body
except httpclient.HTTPError, e:
print "Error:", e
def __init__(self, async_client_class=None, **kwargs):
self._io_loop = IOLoop()
if async_client_class is None:
async_client_class = AsyncHTTPClient
self._async_client = async_client_class(self._io_loop, **kwargs)
self._response = None
self._closed = False
def __del__(self):
def close(self):
"""Closes the HTTPClient, freeing any resources used."""
if not self._closed:
self._closed = True
def fetch(self, request, **kwargs):
"""Executes a request, returning an `HTTPResponse`.
The request may be either a string URL or an `HTTPRequest` object.
If it is a string, we construct an `HTTPRequest` using any additional
kwargs: ``HTTPRequest(request, **kwargs)``
If an error occurs during the fetch, we raise an `HTTPError`.
def callback(response):
self._response = response
self._async_client.fetch(request, callback, **kwargs)
response = self._response
self._response = None
return response
class AsyncHTTPClient(object):
"""An non-blocking HTTP client.
Example usage::
import ioloop
def handle_request(response):
if response.error:
print "Error:", response.error
print response.body
http_client = httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient()
http_client.fetch("", handle_request)
The constructor for this class is magic in several respects: It actually
creates an instance of an implementation-specific subclass, and instances
are reused as a kind of pseudo-singleton (one per IOLoop). The keyword
argument force_instance=True can be used to suppress this singleton
behavior. Constructor arguments other than io_loop and force_instance
are deprecated. The implementation subclass as well as arguments to
its constructor can be set with the static method configure()
_impl_class = None
_impl_kwargs = None
def _async_clients(cls):
assert cls is not AsyncHTTPClient, "should only be called on subclasses"
if not hasattr(cls, '_async_client_dict'):
cls._async_client_dict = weakref.WeakKeyDictionary()
return cls._async_client_dict
def __new__(cls, io_loop=None, max_clients=None, force_instance=False,
io_loop = io_loop or IOLoop.instance()
if cls is AsyncHTTPClient:
if cls._impl_class is None:
from tornado.simple_httpclient import SimpleAsyncHTTPClient
AsyncHTTPClient._impl_class = SimpleAsyncHTTPClient
impl = AsyncHTTPClient._impl_class
impl = cls
if io_loop in impl._async_clients() and not force_instance:
return impl._async_clients()[io_loop]
instance = super(AsyncHTTPClient, cls).__new__(impl)
args = {}
if cls._impl_kwargs:
if max_clients is not None:
# max_clients is special because it may be passed
# positionally instead of by keyword
args["max_clients"] = max_clients
elif "max_clients" not in args:
args["max_clients"] = AsyncHTTPClient._DEFAULT_MAX_CLIENTS
instance.initialize(io_loop, **args)
if not force_instance:
impl._async_clients()[io_loop] = instance
return instance
def close(self):
"""Destroys this http client, freeing any file descriptors used.
Not needed in normal use, but may be helpful in unittests that
create and destroy http clients. No other methods may be called
on the AsyncHTTPClient after close().
if self._async_clients().get(self.io_loop) is self:
del self._async_clients()[self.io_loop]
def fetch(self, request, callback, **kwargs):
"""Executes a request, calling callback with an `HTTPResponse`.
The request may be either a string URL or an `HTTPRequest` object.
If it is a string, we construct an `HTTPRequest` using any additional
kwargs: ``HTTPRequest(request, **kwargs)``
If an error occurs during the fetch, the HTTPResponse given to the
callback has a non-None error attribute that contains the exception
encountered during the request. You can call response.rethrow() to
throw the exception (if any) in the callback.
raise NotImplementedError()
def configure(impl, **kwargs):
"""Configures the AsyncHTTPClient subclass to use.
AsyncHTTPClient() actually creates an instance of a subclass.
This method may be called with either a class object or the
fully-qualified name of such a class (or None to use the default,
If additional keyword arguments are given, they will be passed
to the constructor of each subclass instance created. The
keyword argument max_clients determines the maximum number of
simultaneous fetch() operations that can execute in parallel
on each IOLoop. Additional arguments may be supported depending
on the implementation class in use.
if isinstance(impl, (unicode, bytes_type)):
impl = import_object(impl)
if impl is not None and not issubclass(impl, AsyncHTTPClient):
raise ValueError("Invalid AsyncHTTPClient implementation")
AsyncHTTPClient._impl_class = impl
AsyncHTTPClient._impl_kwargs = kwargs
def _save_configuration():
return (AsyncHTTPClient._impl_class, AsyncHTTPClient._impl_kwargs)
def _restore_configuration(saved):
AsyncHTTPClient._impl_class = saved[0]
AsyncHTTPClient._impl_kwargs = saved[1]
class HTTPRequest(object):
"""HTTP client request object."""
def __init__(self, url, method="GET", headers=None, body=None,
auth_username=None, auth_password=None,
connect_timeout=20.0, request_timeout=20.0,
if_modified_since=None, follow_redirects=True,
max_redirects=5, user_agent=None, use_gzip=True,
network_interface=None, streaming_callback=None,
header_callback=None, prepare_curl_callback=None,
proxy_host=None, proxy_port=None, proxy_username=None,
proxy_password='', allow_nonstandard_methods=False,
validate_cert=True, ca_certs=None,
client_key=None, client_cert=None):
"""Creates an `HTTPRequest`.
All parameters except `url` are optional.
:arg string url: URL to fetch
:arg string method: HTTP method, e.g. "GET" or "POST"
:arg headers: Additional HTTP headers to pass on the request
:type headers: `~tornado.httputil.HTTPHeaders` or `dict`
:arg string auth_username: Username for HTTP "Basic" authentication
:arg string auth_password: Password for HTTP "Basic" authentication
:arg float connect_timeout: Timeout for initial connection in seconds
:arg float request_timeout: Timeout for entire request in seconds
:arg datetime if_modified_since: Timestamp for ``If-Modified-Since``
:arg bool follow_redirects: Should redirects be followed automatically
or return the 3xx response?
:arg int max_redirects: Limit for `follow_redirects`
:arg string user_agent: String to send as ``User-Agent`` header
:arg bool use_gzip: Request gzip encoding from the server
:arg string network_interface: Network interface to use for request
:arg callable streaming_callback: If set, `streaming_callback` will
be run with each chunk of data as it is received, and
`~HTTPResponse.body` and `~HTTPResponse.buffer` will be empty in
the final response.
:arg callable header_callback: If set, `header_callback` will
be run with each header line as it is received, and
`~HTTPResponse.headers` will be empty in the final response.
:arg callable prepare_curl_callback: If set, will be called with
a `pycurl.Curl` object to allow the application to make additional
`setopt` calls.
:arg string proxy_host: HTTP proxy hostname. To use proxies,
`proxy_host` and `proxy_port` must be set; `proxy_username` and
`proxy_pass` are optional. Proxies are currently only support
with `curl_httpclient`.
:arg int proxy_port: HTTP proxy port
:arg string proxy_username: HTTP proxy username
:arg string proxy_password: HTTP proxy password
:arg bool allow_nonstandard_methods: Allow unknown values for `method`
:arg bool validate_cert: For HTTPS requests, validate the server's
:arg string ca_certs: filename of CA certificates in PEM format,
or None to use defaults. Note that in `curl_httpclient`, if
any request uses a custom `ca_certs` file, they all must (they
don't have to all use the same `ca_certs`, but it's not possible
to mix requests with ca_certs and requests that use the defaults.
:arg bool allow_ipv6: Use IPv6 when available? Default is false in
`simple_httpclient` and true in `curl_httpclient`
:arg string client_key: Filename for client SSL key, if any
:arg string client_cert: Filename for client SSL certificate, if any
if headers is None:
headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders()
if if_modified_since:
timestamp = calendar.timegm(if_modified_since.utctimetuple())
headers["If-Modified-Since"] = email.utils.formatdate(
timestamp, localtime=False, usegmt=True)
self.proxy_host = proxy_host
self.proxy_port = proxy_port
self.proxy_username = proxy_username
self.proxy_password = proxy_password
self.url = url
self.method = method
self.headers = headers
self.body = utf8(body)
self.auth_username = auth_username
self.auth_password = auth_password
self.connect_timeout = connect_timeout
self.request_timeout = request_timeout
self.follow_redirects = follow_redirects
self.max_redirects = max_redirects
self.user_agent = user_agent
self.use_gzip = use_gzip
self.network_interface = network_interface
self.streaming_callback = streaming_callback
self.header_callback = header_callback
self.prepare_curl_callback = prepare_curl_callback
self.allow_nonstandard_methods = allow_nonstandard_methods
self.validate_cert = validate_cert
self.ca_certs = ca_certs
self.allow_ipv6 = allow_ipv6
self.client_key = client_key
self.client_cert = client_cert
self.start_time = monotime()
class HTTPResponse(object):
"""HTTP Response object.
* request: HTTPRequest object
* code: numeric HTTP status code, e.g. 200 or 404
* headers: httputil.HTTPHeaders object
* buffer: cStringIO object for response body
* body: respose body as string (created on demand from self.buffer)
* error: Exception object, if any
* request_time: seconds from request start to finish
* time_info: dictionary of diagnostic timing information from the request.
Available data are subject to change, but currently uses timings
available from,
plus 'queue', which is the delay (if any) introduced by waiting for
a slot under AsyncHTTPClient's max_clients setting.
def __init__(self, request, code, headers=None, buffer=None,
effective_url=None, error=None, request_time=None,
self.request = request
self.code = code
if headers is not None:
self.headers = headers
self.headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders()
self.buffer = buffer
self._body = None
if effective_url is None:
self.effective_url = request.url
self.effective_url = effective_url
if error is None:
if self.code < 200 or self.code >= 300:
self.error = HTTPError(self.code, response=self)
self.error = None
self.error = error
self.request_time = request_time
self.time_info = time_info or {}
def _get_body(self):
if self.buffer is None:
return None
elif self._body is None:
self._body = self.buffer.getvalue()
return self._body
body = property(_get_body)
def rethrow(self):
"""If there was an error on the request, raise an `HTTPError`."""
if self.error:
raise self.error
def __repr__(self):
args = ",".join("%s=%r" % i for i in self.__dict__.iteritems())
return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)
class HTTPError(Exception):
"""Exception thrown for an unsuccessful HTTP request.
code - HTTP error integer error code, e.g. 404. Error code 599 is
used when no HTTP response was received, e.g. for a timeout.
response - HTTPResponse object, if any.
Note that if follow_redirects is False, redirects become HTTPErrors,
and you can look at error.response.headers['Location'] to see the
destination of the redirect.
def __init__(self, code, message=None, response=None):
self.code = code
message = message or httplib.responses.get(code, "Unknown")
self.response = response
Exception.__init__(self, "HTTP %d: %s" % (self.code, message))
def main():
from tornado.options import define, options, parse_command_line
define("print_headers", type=bool, default=False)
define("print_body", type=bool, default=True)
define("follow_redirects", type=bool, default=True)
define("validate_cert", type=bool, default=True)
args = parse_command_line()
client = HTTPClient()
for arg in args:
response = client.fetch(arg,
except HTTPError, e:
if e.response is not None:
response = e.response
if options.print_headers:
print response.headers
if options.print_body:
print response.body
if __name__ == "__main__":