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Copyright (C) 2010-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts
being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
"GNU Free Documentation License."
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.
* libquadmath: (libquadmath). GCC Quad-Precision Math Library
This manual documents the GCC Quad-Precision Math Library API.
Published by the Free Software Foundation 51 Franklin Street, Fifth
Floor Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Copyright (C) 2010-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts
being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
"GNU Free Documentation License."
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.

File:, Node: Top, Next: Typedef and constants, Up: (dir)
This manual documents the usage of libquadmath, the GCC Quad-Precision
Math Library Application Programming Interface (API).
* Menu:
* Typedef and constants:: Defined data types and constants
* Math Library Routines:: The Libquadmath math runtime application
programming interface.
* I/O Library Routines:: The Libquadmath I/O runtime application
programming interface.
* GNU Free Documentation License::
How you can copy and share this manual.
* Reporting Bugs:: How to report bugs in GCC Libquadmath.

File:, Node: Typedef and constants, Next: Math Library Routines, Prev: Top, Up: Top
1 Typedef and constants
The following data type has been defined via 'typedef'.
'__complex128': '__float128'-based complex number
The following macros are defined, which give the numeric limits of
the '__float128' data type.
'FLT128_MAX': largest finite number
'FLT128_MIN': smallest positive number with full precision
'FLT128_EPSILON': difference between 1 and the next larger
representable number
'FLT128_DENORM_MIN': smallest positive denormalized number
'FLT128_MANT_DIG': number of digits in the mantissa (bit precision)
'FLT128_MIN_EXP': maximal negative exponent
'FLT128_MAX_EXP': maximal positive exponent
'FLT128_DIG': number of decimal digits in the mantissa
'FLT128_MIN_10_EXP': maximal negative decimal exponent
'FLT128_MAX_10_EXP': maximal positive decimal exponent
The following mathematical constants of type '__float128' are
'M_Eq': the constant e (Euler's number)
'M_LOG2Eq': binary logarithm of 2
'M_LOG10Eq': common, decimal logarithm of 2
'M_LN2q': natural logarithm of 2
'M_LN10q': natural logarithm of 10
'M_PIq': pi
'M_PI_2q': pi divided by two
'M_PI_4q': pi divided by four
'M_1_PIq': one over pi
'M_2_PIq': one over two pi
'M_2_SQRTPIq': two over square root of pi
'M_SQRT2q': square root of 2
'M_SQRT1_2q': one over square root of 2

File:, Node: Math Library Routines, Next: I/O Library Routines, Prev: Typedef and constants, Up: Top
2 Math Library Routines
The following mathematical functions are available:
'acosq': arc cosine function
'acoshq': inverse hyperbolic cosine function
'asinq': arc sine function
'asinhq': inverse hyperbolic sine function
'atanq': arc tangent function
'atanhq': inverse hyperbolic tangent function
'atan2q': arc tangent function
'cbrtq': cube root function
'ceilq': ceiling value function
'copysignq': copy sign of a number
'coshq': hyperbolic cosine function
'cosq': cosine function
'erfq': error function
'erfcq': complementary error function
'expq': exponential function
'expm1q': exponential minus 1 function
'fabsq': absolute value function
'fdimq': positive difference function
'finiteq': check finiteness of value
'floorq': floor value function
'fmaq': fused multiply and add
'fmaxq': determine maximum of two values
'fminq': determine minimum of two values
'fmodq': remainder value function
'frexpq': extract mantissa and exponent
'hypotq': Eucledian distance function
'ilogbq': get exponent of the value
'isinfq': check for infinity
'isnanq': check for not a number
'j0q': Bessel function of the first kind, first order
'j1q': Bessel function of the first kind, second order
'jnq': Bessel function of the first kind, N-th order
'ldexpq': load exponent of the value
'lgammaq': logarithmic gamma function
'llrintq': round to nearest integer value
'llroundq': round to nearest integer value away from zero
'logq': natural logarithm function
'log10q': base 10 logarithm function
'log1pq': compute natural logarithm of the value plus one
'log2q': base 2 logarithm function
'lrintq': round to nearest integer value
'lroundq': round to nearest integer value away from zero
'modfq': decompose the floating-point number
'nanq': return quiet NaN
'nearbyintq': round to nearest integer
'nextafterq': next representable floating-point number
'powq': power function
'remainderq': remainder function
'remquoq': remainder and part of quotient
'rintq': round-to-nearest integral value
'roundq': round-to-nearest integral value, return '__float128'
'scalblnq': compute exponent using 'FLT_RADIX'
'scalbnq': compute exponent using 'FLT_RADIX'
'signbitq': return sign bit
'sincosq': calculate sine and cosine simulataneously
'sinhq': hyperbolic sine function
'sinq': sine function
'sqrtq': square root function
'tanq': tangent function
'tanhq': hyperbolic tangent function
'tgammaq': true gamma function
'truncq': round to integer, towards zero
'y0q': Bessel function of the second kind, first order
'y1q': Bessel function of the second kind, second order
'ynq': Bessel function of the second kind, N-th order
'cabsq' complex absolute value function
'cargq': calculate the argument
'cimagq' imaginary part of complex number
'crealq': real part of complex number
'cacoshq': complex arc hyperbolic cosine function
'cacosq': complex arc cosine function
'casinhq': complex arc hyperbolic sine function
'casinq': complex arc sine function
'catanhq': complex arc hyperbolic tangent function
'catanq': complex arc tangent function
'ccosq' complex cosine function:
'ccoshq': complex hyperbolic cosine function
'cexpq': complex exponential function
'cexpiq': computes the exponential function of "i" times a
real value
'clogq': complex natural logarithm
'clog10q': complex base 10 logarithm
'conjq': complex conjugate function
'cpowq': complex power function
'cprojq': project into Riemann Sphere
'csinq': complex sine function
'csinhq': complex hyperbolic sine function
'csqrtq': complex square root
'ctanq': complex tangent function
'ctanhq': complex hyperbolic tangent function

File:, Node: I/O Library Routines, Next: GNU Free Documentation License, Prev: Math Library Routines, Up: Top
3 I/O Library Routines
* Menu:
* 'strtoflt128': strtoflt128, Convert from string
* 'quadmath_snprintf': quadmath_snprintf, Convert to string

File:, Node: strtoflt128, Next: quadmath_snprintf, Up: I/O Library Routines
3.1 'strtoflt128' -- Convert from string
The function 'strtoflt128' converts a string into a '__float128' number.
'__float128 strtoflt128 (const char *s, char **sp)'
S input string
SP the address of the next character in the string
The argument SP contains, if not 'NULL', the address of the next
character following the parts of the string, which have been read.
#include <quadmath.h>
int main ()
__float128 r;
r = strtoflt128 ("1.2345678", NULL);
return 0;

File:, Node: quadmath_snprintf, Prev: strtoflt128, Up: I/O Library Routines
3.2 'quadmath_snprintf' -- Convert to string
The function 'quadmath_snprintf' converts a '__float128' floating-point
number into a string. It is a specialized alternative to 'snprintf',
where the format string is restricted to a single conversion specifier
with 'Q' modifier and conversion specifier 'e', 'E', 'f', 'F', 'g', 'G',
'a' or 'A', with no extra characters before or after the conversion
specifier. The '%m$' or '*m$' style must not be used in the format.
'int quadmath_snprintf (char *s, size_t size, const char *format,
S output string
SIZE byte size of the string, including tailing NUL
FORMAT conversion specifier string
On some targets when supported by the C library hooks are installed
for 'printf' family of functions, so that 'printf ("%Qe", 1.2Q);'
etc. works too.
#include <quadmath.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
__float128 r;
int prec = 20;
int width = 46;
char buf[128];
r = 2.0q;
r = sqrtq (r);
int n = quadmath_snprintf (buf, sizeof buf, "%+-#*.20Qe", width, r);
if ((size_t) n < sizeof buf)
printf ("%s\n", buf);
/* Prints: +1.41421356237309504880e+00 */
quadmath_snprintf (buf, sizeof buf, "%Qa", r);
if ((size_t) n < sizeof buf)
printf ("%s\n", buf);
/* Prints: 0x1.6a09e667f3bcc908b2fb1366ea96p+0 */
n = quadmath_snprintf (NULL, 0, "%+-#46.*Qe", prec, r);
if (n > -1)
char *str = malloc (n + 1);
if (str)
quadmath_snprintf (str, n + 1, "%+-#46.*Qe", prec, r);
printf ("%s\n", str);
/* Prints: +1.41421356237309504880e+00 */
free (str);
return 0;

File:, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Next: Reporting Bugs, Prev: I/O Library Routines, Up: Top
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If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.

File:, Node: Reporting Bugs, Prev: GNU Free Documentation License, Up: Top
4 Reporting Bugs
Bugs in the GCC Quad-Precision Math Library implementation should be
reported via <>.

Tag Table:
Node: Top1633
Node: Typedef and constants2367
Node: Math Library Routines3786
Node: I/O Library Routines7503
Node: strtoflt1287828
Node: quadmath_snprintf8588
Node: GNU Free Documentation License10798
Node: Reporting Bugs35944

End Tag Table