|* NOTE - This is an unmaintained driver. Lantronix, which bought Stallion
|technologies, is not active in driver maintenance, and they have no information
|on when or if they will have a 2.6 driver.
|James Nelson <email@example.com> - 12-12-2004
|Stallion Multiport Serial Driver Readme
|Copyright (C) 1994-1999, Stallion Technologies.
|There are two drivers that work with the different families of Stallion
|multiport serial boards. One is for the Stallion smart boards - that is
|EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 and EasyConnection 8/64-PCI, the other for
|the true Stallion intelligent multiport boards - EasyConnection 8/64
|(ISA, EISA, MCA), EasyConnection/RA-PCI, ONboard and Brumby.
|If you are using any of the Stallion intelligent multiport boards (Brumby,
|ONboard, EasyConnection 8/64 (ISA, EISA, MCA), EasyConnection/RA-PCI) with
|Linux you will need to get the driver utility package. This contains a
|firmware loader and the firmware images necessary to make the devices operate.
|The Stallion Technologies ftp site, ftp.stallion.com, will always have
|the latest version of the driver utility package.
|As of the printing of this document the latest version of the driver
|utility package is 5.5.0. If a later version is now available then you
|should use the latest version.
|If you are using the EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 or EasyConnection 8/64-PCI
|boards then you don't need this package, although it does have a serial stats
|If you require DIP switch settings, EISA or MCA configuration files, or any
|other information related to Stallion boards then have a look at Stallion's
|web pages at http://www.stallion.com.
|The drivers can be used as loadable modules or compiled into the kernel.
|You can choose which when doing a "config" on the kernel.
|All ISA, EISA and MCA boards that you want to use need to be configured into
|the driver(s). All PCI boards will be automatically detected when you load
|the driver - so they do not need to be entered into the driver(s)
|configuration structure. Note that kernel PCI support is required to use PCI
|There are two methods of configuring ISA, EISA and MCA boards into the drivers.
|If using the driver as a loadable module then the simplest method is to pass
|the driver configuration as module arguments. The other method is to modify
|the driver source to add configuration lines for each board in use.
|If you have pre-built Stallion driver modules then the module argument
|configuration method should be used. A lot of Linux distributions come with
|pre-built driver modules in /lib/modules/X.Y.Z/misc for the kernel in use.
|That makes things pretty simple to get going.
|2.1 MODULE DRIVER CONFIGURATION:
|The simplest configuration for modules is to use the module load arguments
|to configure any ISA, EISA or MCA boards. PCI boards are automatically
|detected, so do not need any additional configuration at all.
|If using EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 ISA or MCA, or EasyConnection 8/63-PCI
|boards then use the "stallion" driver module, Otherwise if you are using
|an EasyConnection 8/64 ISA, EISA or MCA, EasyConnection/RA-PCI, ONboard,
|Brumby or original Stallion board then use the "istallion" driver module.
|Typically to load up the smart board driver use:
| modprobe stallion
|This will load the EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 driver. It will output a
|message to say that it loaded and print the driver version number. It will
|also print out whether it found the configured boards or not. These messages
|may not appear on the console, but typically are always logged to
|/var/adm/messages or /var/log/syslog files - depending on how the klogd and
|syslogd daemons are setup on your system.
|To load the intelligent board driver use:
| modprobe istallion
|It will output similar messages to the smart board driver.
|If not using an auto-detectable board type (that is a PCI board) then you
|will also need to supply command line arguments to the modprobe command
|when loading the driver. The general form of the configuration argument is
| board? -- specifies the arbitrary board number of this board,
| can be in the range 0 to 3.
| name -- textual name of this board. The board name is the common
| board name, or any "shortened" version of that. The board
| type number may also be used here.
| ioaddr -- specifies the I/O address of this board. This argument is
| optional, but should generally be specified.
| addr -- optional second address argument. Some board types require
| a second I/O address, some require a memory address. The
| exact meaning of this argument depends on the board type.
| irq -- optional IRQ line used by this board.
|Up to 4 board configuration arguments can be specified on the load line.
|Here is some examples:
| modprobe stallion board0=easyio,0x2a0,5
|This configures an EasyIO board as board 0 at I/O address 0x2a0 and IRQ 5.
| modprobe istallion board3=ec8/64,0x2c0,0xcc000
|This configures an EasyConnection 8/64 ISA as board 3 at I/O address 0x2c0 at
|memory address 0xcc000.
| modprobe stallion board1=ec8/32-at,0x2a0,0x280,10
|This configures an EasyConnection 8/32 ISA board at primary I/O address 0x2a0,
|secondary address 0x280 and IRQ 10.
|You will probably want to enter this module load and configuration information
|into your system startup scripts so that the drivers are loaded and configured
|on each system boot. Typically the start up script would be something like
|2.2 STATIC DRIVER CONFIGURATION:
|For static driver configuration you need to modify the driver source code.
|Entering ISA, EISA and MCA boards into the driver(s) configuration structure
|involves editing the driver(s) source file. It's pretty easy if you follow
|the instructions below. Both drivers can support up to 4 boards. The smart
|card driver (the stallion.c driver) supports any combination of EasyIO and
|EasyConnection 8/32 boards (up to a total of 4). The intelligent driver
|supports any combination of ONboards, Brumbys, Stallions and EasyConnection
|8/64 (ISA and EISA) boards (up to a total of 4).
|To set up the driver(s) for the boards that you want to use you need to
|edit the appropriate driver file and add configuration entries.
|If using EasyIO or EasyConnection 8/32 ISA or MCA boards,
| In drivers/char/stallion.c:
| - find the definition of the stl_brdconf array (of structures)
| near the top of the file
| - modify this to match the boards you are going to install
| (the comments before this structure should help)
| - save and exit
|If using ONboard, Brumby, Stallion or EasyConnection 8/64 (ISA or EISA)
| In drivers/char/istallion.c:
| - find the definition of the stli_brdconf array (of structures)
| near the top of the file
| - modify this to match the boards you are going to install
| (the comments before this structure should help)
| - save and exit
|Once you have set up the board configurations then you are ready to build
|the kernel or modules.
|When the new kernel is booted, or the loadable module loaded then the
|driver will emit some kernel trace messages about whether the configured
|boards were detected or not. Depending on how your system logger is set
|up these may come out on the console, or just be logged to
|/var/adm/messages or /var/log/syslog. You should check the messages to
|confirm that all is well.
|2.3 SHARING INTERRUPTS
|It is possible to share interrupts between multiple EasyIO and
|EasyConnection 8/32 boards in an EISA system. To do this you must be using
|static driver configuration, modifying the driver source code to add driver
|configuration. Then a couple of extra things are required:
|1. When entering the board resources into the stallion.c file you need to
| mark the boards as using level triggered interrupts. Do this by replacing
| the "0" entry at field position 6 (the last field) in the board
| configuration structure with a "1". (This is the structure that defines
| the board type, I/O locations, etc. for each board). All boards that are
| sharing an interrupt must be set this way, and each board should have the
| same interrupt number specified here as well. Now build the module or
| kernel as you would normally.
|2. When physically installing the boards into the system you must enter
| the system EISA configuration utility. You will need to install the EISA
| configuration files for *all* the EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 boards
| that are sharing interrupts. The Stallion EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32
| EISA configuration files required are supplied by Stallion Technologies
| on the EASY Utilities floppy diskette (usually supplied in the box with
| the board when purchased. If not, you can pick it up from Stallion's FTP
| site, ftp.stallion.com). You will need to edit the board resources to
| choose level triggered interrupts, and make sure to set each board's
| interrupt to the same IRQ number.
|You must complete both the above steps for this to work. When you reboot
|or load the driver your EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 boards will be
|2.4 USING HIGH SHARED MEMORY
|The EasyConnection 8/64-EI, ONboard and Stallion boards are capable of
|using shared memory addresses above the usual 640K - 1Mb range. The ONboard
|ISA and the Stallion boards can be programmed to use memory addresses up to
|16Mb (the ISA bus addressing limit), and the EasyConnection 8/64-EI and
|ONboard/E can be programmed for memory addresses up to 4Gb (the EISA bus
|The higher than 1Mb memory addresses are fully supported by this driver.
|Just enter the address as you normally would for a lower than 1Mb address
|(in the driver's board configuration structure).
|2.5 TROUBLE SHOOTING
|If a board is not found by the driver but is actually in the system then the
|most likely problem is that the I/O address is wrong. Change the module load
|argument for the loadable module form. Or change it in the driver stallion.c
|or istallion.c configuration structure and rebuild the kernel or modules, or
|change it on the board.
|On EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 boards the IRQ is software programmable, so
|if there is a conflict you may need to change the IRQ used for a board. There
|are no interrupts to worry about for ONboard, Brumby or EasyConnection 8/64
|(ISA, EISA and MCA) boards. The memory region on EasyConnection 8/64 and
|ONboard boards is software programmable, but not on the Brumby boards.
|3. USING THE DRIVERS
|3.1 INTELLIGENT DRIVER OPERATION
|The intelligent boards also need to have their "firmware" code downloaded
|to them. This is done via a user level application supplied in the driver
|utility package called "stlload". Compile this program wherever you dropped
|the package files, by typing "make". In its simplest form you can then type
| ./stlload -i cdk.sys
|in this directory and that will download board 0 (assuming board 0 is an
|EasyConnection 8/64 or EasyConnection/RA board). To download to an
|ONboard, Brumby or Stallion do:
| ./stlload -i 2681.sys
|Normally you would want all boards to be downloaded as part of the standard
|system startup. To achieve this, add one of the lines above into the
|/etc/rc.d/rc.S or /etc/rc.d/rc.serial file. To download each board just add
|the "-b <brd-number>" option to the line. You will need to download code for
|every board. You should probably move the stlload program into a system
|directory, such as /usr/sbin. Also, the default location of the cdk.sys image
|file in the stlload down-loader is /usr/lib/stallion. Create that directory
|and put the cdk.sys and 2681.sys files in it. (It's a convenient place to put
|them anyway). As an example your /etc/rc.d/rc.S file might have the
|following lines added to it (if you had 3 boards):
| /usr/sbin/stlload -b 0 -i /usr/lib/stallion/cdk.sys
| /usr/sbin/stlload -b 1 -i /usr/lib/stallion/2681.sys
| /usr/sbin/stlload -b 2 -i /usr/lib/stallion/2681.sys
|The image files cdk.sys and 2681.sys are specific to the board types. The
|cdk.sys will only function correctly on an EasyConnection 8/64 board. Similarly
|the 2681.sys image fill only operate on ONboard, Brumby and Stallion boards.
|If you load the wrong image file into a board it will fail to start up, and
|of course the ports will not be operational!
|If you are using the modularized version of the driver you might want to put
|the modprobe calls in the startup script as well (before the download lines
|3.2 USING THE SERIAL PORTS
|Once the driver is installed you will need to setup some device nodes to
|access the serial ports. The simplest method is to use the /dev/MAKEDEV program.
|It will automatically create device entries for Stallion boards. This will
|create the normal serial port devices as /dev/ttyE# where# is the port number
|starting from 0. A bank of 64 minor device numbers is allocated to each board,
|so the first port on the second board is port 64,etc. A set of callout type
|devices may also be created. They are created as the devices /dev/cue# where #
|is the same as for the ttyE devices.
|For the most part the Stallion driver tries to emulate the standard PC system
|COM ports and the standard Linux serial driver. The idea is that you should
|be able to use Stallion board ports and COM ports interchangeably without
|modifying anything but the device name. Anything that doesn't work like that
|should be considered a bug in this driver!
|If you look at the driver code you will notice that it is fairly closely
|based on the Linux serial driver (linux/drivers/char/serial.c). This is
|intentional, obviously this is the easiest way to emulate its behavior!
|Since this driver tries to emulate the standard serial ports as much as
|possible, most system utilities should work as they do for the standard
|COM ports. Most importantly "stty" works as expected and "setserial" can
|also be used (excepting the ability to auto-configure the I/O and IRQ
|addresses of boards). Higher baud rates are supported in the usual fashion
|through setserial or using the CBAUDEX extensions. Note that the EasyIO and
|EasyConnection (all types) support at least 57600 and 115200 baud. The newer
|EasyConnection XP modules and new EasyIO boards support 230400 and 460800
|baud as well. The older boards including ONboard and Brumby support a
|maximum baud rate of 38400.
|If you are unfamiliar with how to use serial ports, then get the Serial-HOWTO
|by Greg Hankins. It will explain everything you need to know!
|You can use both drivers at once if you have a mix of board types installed
|in a system. However to do this you will need to change the major numbers
|used by one of the drivers. Currently both drivers use major numbers 24, 25
|and 28 for their devices. Change one driver to use some other major numbers,
|and then modify the mkdevnods script to make device nodes based on those new
|major numbers. For example, you could change the istallion.c driver to use
|major numbers 60, 61 and 62. You will also need to create device nodes with
|different names for the ports, for example ttyF# and cuf#.
|The original Stallion board is no longer supported by Stallion Technologies.
|Although it is known to work with the istallion driver.
|Finding a free physical memory address range can be a problem. The older
|boards like the Stallion and ONboard need large areas (64K or even 128K), so
|they can be very difficult to get into a system. If you have 16 Mb of RAM
|then you have no choice but to put them somewhere in the 640K -> 1Mb range.
|ONboards require 64K, so typically 0xd0000 is good, or 0xe0000 on some
|systems. If you have an original Stallion board, "V4.0" or Rev.O, then you
|need a 64K memory address space, so again 0xd0000 and 0xe0000 are good.
|Older Stallion boards are a much bigger problem. They need 128K of address
|space and must be on a 128K boundary. If you don't have a VGA card then
|0xc0000 might be usable - there is really no other place you can put them
|Both the ONboard and old Stallion boards can use higher memory addresses as
|well, but you must have less than 16Mb of RAM to be able to use them. Usual
|high memory addresses used include 0xec0000 and 0xf00000.
|The Brumby boards only require 16Kb of address space, so you can usually
|squeeze them in somewhere. Common addresses are 0xc8000, 0xcc000, or in
|the 0xd0000 range. EasyConnection 8/64 boards are even better, they only
|require 4Kb of address space, again usually 0xc8000, 0xcc000 or 0xd0000
|If you are using an EasyConnection 8/64-EI or ONboard/E then usually the
|0xd0000 or 0xe0000 ranges are the best options below 1Mb. If neither of
|them can be used then the high memory support to use the really high address
|ranges is the best option. Typically the 2Gb range is convenient for them,
|and gets them well out of the way.
|The ports of the EasyIO-8M board do not have DCD or DTR signals. So these
|ports cannot be used as real modem devices. Generally, when using these
|ports you should only use the cueX devices.
|The driver utility package contains a couple of very useful programs. One
|is a serial port statistics collection and display program - very handy
|for solving serial port problems. The other is an extended option setting
|program that works with the intelligent boards.
|The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate and
|reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Stallion Technologies
|Pty. Ltd. for its use, nor any infringements of patents or other rights
|of third parties resulting from its use. Stallion Technologies reserves
|the right to modify the design of its products and will endeavour to change
|the information in manuals and accompanying documentation accordingly.