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NAND FLASH commands and notes
See NOTE below!!!
# (C) Copyright 2003
# Dave Ellis, SIXNET,
# See file CREDITS for list of people who contributed to this
# project.
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
# published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
# the License, or (at your option) any later version.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
# MA 02111-1307 USA
nand bad
Print a list of all of the bad blocks in the current device.
nand device
Print information about the current NAND device.
nand device num
Make device `num' the current device and print information about it.
nand erase off|partition size
nand erase clean [off|partition size]
Erase `size' bytes starting at offset `off'. Alternatively partition
name can be specified, in this case size will be eventually limited
to not exceed partition size (this behaviour applies also to read
and write commands). Only complete erase blocks can be erased.
If `erase' is specified without an offset or size, the entire flash
is erased. If `erase' is specified with partition but without an
size, the entire partition is erased.
If `clean' is specified, a JFFS2-style clean marker is written to
each block after it is erased.
This command will not erase blocks that are marked bad. There is
a debug option in cmd_nand.c to allow bad blocks to be erased.
Please read the warning there before using it, as blocks marked
bad by the manufacturer must _NEVER_ be erased.
nand info
Print information about all of the NAND devices found.
nand read addr ofs|partition size
Read `size' bytes from `ofs' in NAND flash to `addr'. Blocks that
are marked bad are skipped. If a page cannot be read because an
uncorrectable data error is found, the command stops with an error.
nand read.oob addr ofs|partition size
Read `size' bytes from the out-of-band data area corresponding to
`ofs' in NAND flash to `addr'. This is limited to the 16 bytes of
data for one 512-byte page or 2 256-byte pages. There is no check
for bad blocks or ECC errors.
nand write addr ofs|partition size
Write `size' bytes from `addr' to `ofs' in NAND flash. Blocks that
are marked bad are skipped. If a page cannot be read because an
uncorrectable data error is found, the command stops with an error.
As JFFS2 skips blocks similarly, this allows writing a JFFS2 image,
as long as the image is short enough to fit even after skipping the
bad blocks. Compact images, such as those produced by mkfs.jffs2
should work well, but loading an image copied from another flash is
going to be trouble if there are any bad blocks.
nand write.trimffs addr ofs|partition size
Enabled by the CONFIG_CMD_NAND_TRIMFFS macro. This command will write to
the NAND flash in a manner identical to the 'nand write' command
described above -- with the additional check that all pages at the end
of eraseblocks which contain only 0xff data will not be written to the
NAND flash. This behaviour is required when flashing UBI images
containing UBIFS volumes as per the UBI FAQ[1].
nand write.yaffs2 addr ofs|partition size
macros. This command will write YAFFS2 image from memory 'addr'
to the NAND flash. The YAFFS2 image, consisting of sequential pages of
data and OOB (Out Of Band) information, may be created by the utility
'mkyaffs2image' provided on the official YAFFS2 web site[1].
nand write.oob addr ofs|partition size
Write `size' bytes from `addr' to the out-of-band data area
corresponding to `ofs' in NAND flash. This is limited to the 16 bytes
of data for one 512-byte page or 2 256-byte pages. There is no check
for bad blocks.
nand read.raw addr ofs|partition [count]
nand write.raw addr ofs|partition [count]
Read or write one or more pages at "ofs" in NAND flash, from or to
"addr" in memory. This is a raw access, so ECC is avoided and the
OOB area is transferred as well. If count is absent, it is assumed
to be one page. As with .yaffs2 accesses, the data is formatted as
a packed sequence of "data, oob, data, oob, ..." -- no alignment of
individual pages is maintained.
Configuration Options:
Enables NAND support and commmands.
Enables the torture command (see description of this command below).
Define this if you want the Error Correction Code information in
the out-of-band data to be formatted to match the JFFS2 file system.
CONFIG_MTD_NAND_ECC_YAFFS would be another useful choice for
someone to implement.
The maximum number of NAND devices you want to support.
The maximum number of NAND chips per device to be supported.
Traditionally, glue code in drivers/mtd/nand/nand.c has driven
the initialization process -- it provides the mtd and nand
structs, calls a board init function for a specific device,
calls nand_scan(), and registers with mtd.
This arrangement does not provide drivers with the flexibility to
run code between nand_scan_ident() and nand_scan_tail(), or other
deviations from the "normal" flow.
If a board defines CONFIG_SYS_NAND_SELF_INIT, drivers/mtd/nand/nand.c
will make one call to board_nand_init(), with no arguments. That
function is responsible for calling a driver init function for
each NAND device on the board, that performs all initialization
tasks except setting mtd->name, and registering with the rest of
U-Boot. Those last tasks are accomplished by calling nand_register()
on the new mtd device.
Example of new init to be added to the end of an existing driver
* devnum is the device number to be used in nand commands
* and in mtd->name. Must be less than
mtd = &nand_info[devnum];
/* chip is struct nand_chip, and is now provided by the driver. */
mtd->priv = &chip;
* Fill in appropriate values if this driver uses these fields,
* or uses the standard read_byte/write_buf/etc. functions from
* nand_base.c that use these fields.
chip.IO_ADDR_R = ...;
chip.IO_ADDR_W = ...;
if (nand_scan_ident(mtd, CONFIG_SYS_MAX_NAND_CHIPS, NULL))
error out
* Insert here any code you wish to run after the chip has been
* identified, but before any other I/O is done.
if (nand_scan_tail(mtd))
error out
if (nand_register(devnum))
error out
In addition to providing more flexibility to the driver, it reduces
the difference between a U-Boot driver and its Linux counterpart.
nand_init() is now reduced to calling board_nand_init() once, and
printing a size summary. This should also make it easier to
transition to delayed NAND initialization.
Please convert your driver even if you don't need the extra
flexibility, so that one day we can eliminate the old mechanism.
The current NAND implementation is based on what is in recent
Linux kernels. The old legacy implementation has been removed.
If you have board code which used CONFIG_NAND_LEGACY, you'll need
to convert to the current NAND interface for it to continue to work.
The Disk On Chip driver is currently broken and has been for some time.
There is a driver in drivers/mtd/nand, taken from Linux, that works with
the current NAND system but has not yet been adapted to the u-boot
Additional improvements to the NAND subsystem by Guido Classen, 10-10-2006
JFFS2 related commands:
implement "nand erase clean" and old "nand erase"
using both the new code which is able to skip bad blocks
"nand erase clean" additionally writes JFFS2-cleanmarkers in the oob.
Miscellaneous and testing commands:
"markbad [offset]"
create an artificial bad block (for testing bad block handling)
"scrub [offset length]"
like "erase" but don't skip bad block. Instead erase them.
DANGEROUS!!! Factory set bad blocks will be lost. Use only
to remove artificial bad blocks created with the "markbad" command.
"torture offset"
Torture block to determine if it is still reliable.
Enabled by the CONFIG_CMD_NAND_TORTURE configuration option.
This command returns 0 if the block is still reliable, else 1.
If the block is detected as unreliable, it is up to the user to decide to
mark this block as bad.
The analyzed block is put through 3 erase / write cycles (or less if the block
is detected as unreliable earlier).
This command can be used in scripts, e.g. together with the markbad command to
automate retries and handling of possibly newly detected bad blocks if the
nand write command fails.
It can also be used manually by users having seen some NAND errors in logs to
search the root cause of these errors.
The underlying nand_torture() function is also useful for code willing to
automate actions following a nand->write() error. This would e.g. be required
in order to program or update safely firmware to NAND, especially for the UBI
part of such firmware.
NAND locking command (for chips with active LOCKPRE pin)
"nand lock"
set NAND chip to lock state (all pages locked)
"nand lock tight"
set NAND chip to lock tight state (software can't change locking anymore)
"nand lock status"
displays current locking status of all pages
"nand unlock [offset] [size]"
unlock consecutive area (can be called multiple times for different areas)
"nand unlock.allexcept [offset] [size]"
unlock all except specified consecutive area
I have tested the code with board containing 128MiB NAND large page chips
and 32MiB small page chips.