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This is libc.info, produced by makeinfo version 5.2 from libc.texinfo.
This file documents the GNU C Library.
This is 'The GNU C Library Reference Manual', for version 2.19
(Buildroot).
Copyright (C) 1993-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being "Free Software Needs Free Documentation" and
"GNU Lesser General Public License", the Front-Cover texts being "A GNU
Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
License".
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
developing GNU and promoting software freedom."
INFO-DIR-SECTION Software libraries
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* Libc: (libc). C library.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
INFO-DIR-SECTION GNU C library functions and macros
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* ALTWERASE: (libc)Local Modes.
* ARGP_ERR_UNKNOWN: (libc)Argp Parser Functions.
* ARG_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* BC_BASE_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* BC_DIM_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* BC_SCALE_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* BC_STRING_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* BRKINT: (libc)Input Modes.
* BUFSIZ: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* CCTS_OFLOW: (libc)Control Modes.
* CHILD_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* CIGNORE: (libc)Control Modes.
* CLK_TCK: (libc)Processor Time.
* CLOCAL: (libc)Control Modes.
* CLOCKS_PER_SEC: (libc)CPU Time.
* COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* CPU_CLR: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* CPU_ISSET: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* CPU_SET: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* CPU_SETSIZE: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* CPU_ZERO: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* CREAD: (libc)Control Modes.
* CRTS_IFLOW: (libc)Control Modes.
* CS5: (libc)Control Modes.
* CS6: (libc)Control Modes.
* CS7: (libc)Control Modes.
* CS8: (libc)Control Modes.
* CSIZE: (libc)Control Modes.
* CSTOPB: (libc)Control Modes.
* DES_FAILED: (libc)DES Encryption.
* DTTOIF: (libc)Directory Entries.
* E2BIG: (libc)Error Codes.
* EACCES: (libc)Error Codes.
* EADDRINUSE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EADDRNOTAVAIL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EADV: (libc)Error Codes.
* EAFNOSUPPORT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EAGAIN: (libc)Error Codes.
* EALREADY: (libc)Error Codes.
* EAUTH: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBACKGROUND: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADF: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADFD: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADMSG: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADR: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADRPC: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADRQC: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBADSLT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBFONT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EBUSY: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECANCELED: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECHILD: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECHO: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHOCTL: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHOE: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHOK: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHOKE: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHONL: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHOPRT: (libc)Local Modes.
* ECHRNG: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECOMM: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECONNABORTED: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECONNREFUSED: (libc)Error Codes.
* ECONNRESET: (libc)Error Codes.
* ED: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDEADLK: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDEADLOCK: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDESTADDRREQ: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDIED: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDOM: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDOTDOT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EDQUOT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EEXIST: (libc)Error Codes.
* EFAULT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EFBIG: (libc)Error Codes.
* EFTYPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EGRATUITOUS: (libc)Error Codes.
* EGREGIOUS: (libc)Error Codes.
* EHOSTDOWN: (libc)Error Codes.
* EHOSTUNREACH: (libc)Error Codes.
* EHWPOISON: (libc)Error Codes.
* EIDRM: (libc)Error Codes.
* EIEIO: (libc)Error Codes.
* EILSEQ: (libc)Error Codes.
* EINPROGRESS: (libc)Error Codes.
* EINTR: (libc)Error Codes.
* EINVAL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EIO: (libc)Error Codes.
* EISCONN: (libc)Error Codes.
* EISDIR: (libc)Error Codes.
* EISNAM: (libc)Error Codes.
* EKEYEXPIRED: (libc)Error Codes.
* EKEYREJECTED: (libc)Error Codes.
* EKEYREVOKED: (libc)Error Codes.
* EL2HLT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EL2NSYNC: (libc)Error Codes.
* EL3HLT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EL3RST: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELIBACC: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELIBBAD: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELIBEXEC: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELIBMAX: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELIBSCN: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELNRNG: (libc)Error Codes.
* ELOOP: (libc)Error Codes.
* EMEDIUMTYPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EMFILE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EMLINK: (libc)Error Codes.
* EMSGSIZE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EMULTIHOP: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENAMETOOLONG: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENAVAIL: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENEEDAUTH: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENETDOWN: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENETRESET: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENETUNREACH: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENFILE: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOANO: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOBUFS: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOCSI: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENODATA: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENODEV: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOENT: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOEXEC: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOKEY: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOLCK: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOLINK: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOMEDIUM: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOMEM: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOMSG: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENONET: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOPKG: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOPROTOOPT: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOSPC: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOSR: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOSTR: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOSYS: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTBLK: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTCONN: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTDIR: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTEMPTY: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTNAM: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTRECOVERABLE: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTSOCK: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTSUP: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTTY: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENOTUNIQ: (libc)Error Codes.
* ENXIO: (libc)Error Codes.
* EOF: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* EOPNOTSUPP: (libc)Error Codes.
* EOVERFLOW: (libc)Error Codes.
* EOWNERDEAD: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPERM: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPFNOSUPPORT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPIPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROCLIM: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROCUNAVAIL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROGMISMATCH: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROGUNAVAIL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROTO: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROTONOSUPPORT: (libc)Error Codes.
* EPROTOTYPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EQUIV_CLASS_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* ERANGE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EREMCHG: (libc)Error Codes.
* EREMOTE: (libc)Error Codes.
* EREMOTEIO: (libc)Error Codes.
* ERESTART: (libc)Error Codes.
* ERFKILL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EROFS: (libc)Error Codes.
* ERPCMISMATCH: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESHUTDOWN: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESOCKTNOSUPPORT: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESPIPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESRCH: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESRMNT: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESTALE: (libc)Error Codes.
* ESTRPIPE: (libc)Error Codes.
* ETIME: (libc)Error Codes.
* ETIMEDOUT: (libc)Error Codes.
* ETOOMANYREFS: (libc)Error Codes.
* ETXTBSY: (libc)Error Codes.
* EUCLEAN: (libc)Error Codes.
* EUNATCH: (libc)Error Codes.
* EUSERS: (libc)Error Codes.
* EWOULDBLOCK: (libc)Error Codes.
* EXDEV: (libc)Error Codes.
* EXFULL: (libc)Error Codes.
* EXIT_FAILURE: (libc)Exit Status.
* EXIT_SUCCESS: (libc)Exit Status.
* EXPR_NEST_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* FD_CLOEXEC: (libc)Descriptor Flags.
* FD_CLR: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* FD_ISSET: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* FD_SET: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* FD_SETSIZE: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* FD_ZERO: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* FILENAME_MAX: (libc)Limits for Files.
* FLUSHO: (libc)Local Modes.
* FOPEN_MAX: (libc)Opening Streams.
* FP_ILOGB0: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* FP_ILOGBNAN: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* F_DUPFD: (libc)Duplicating Descriptors.
* F_GETFD: (libc)Descriptor Flags.
* F_GETFL: (libc)Getting File Status Flags.
* F_GETLK: (libc)File Locks.
* F_GETOWN: (libc)Interrupt Input.
* F_OK: (libc)Testing File Access.
* F_SETFD: (libc)Descriptor Flags.
* F_SETFL: (libc)Getting File Status Flags.
* F_SETLK: (libc)File Locks.
* F_SETLKW: (libc)File Locks.
* F_SETOWN: (libc)Interrupt Input.
* HUGE_VAL: (libc)Math Error Reporting.
* HUGE_VALF: (libc)Math Error Reporting.
* HUGE_VALL: (libc)Math Error Reporting.
* HUPCL: (libc)Control Modes.
* I: (libc)Complex Numbers.
* ICANON: (libc)Local Modes.
* ICRNL: (libc)Input Modes.
* IEXTEN: (libc)Local Modes.
* IFNAMSIZ: (libc)Interface Naming.
* IFTODT: (libc)Directory Entries.
* IGNBRK: (libc)Input Modes.
* IGNCR: (libc)Input Modes.
* IGNPAR: (libc)Input Modes.
* IMAXBEL: (libc)Input Modes.
* INADDR_ANY: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* INADDR_BROADCAST: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* INADDR_LOOPBACK: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* INADDR_NONE: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* INFINITY: (libc)Infinity and NaN.
* INLCR: (libc)Input Modes.
* INPCK: (libc)Input Modes.
* IPPORT_RESERVED: (libc)Ports.
* IPPORT_USERRESERVED: (libc)Ports.
* ISIG: (libc)Local Modes.
* ISTRIP: (libc)Input Modes.
* IXANY: (libc)Input Modes.
* IXOFF: (libc)Input Modes.
* IXON: (libc)Input Modes.
* LINE_MAX: (libc)Utility Limits.
* LINK_MAX: (libc)Limits for Files.
* L_ctermid: (libc)Identifying the Terminal.
* L_cuserid: (libc)Who Logged In.
* L_tmpnam: (libc)Temporary Files.
* MAXNAMLEN: (libc)Limits for Files.
* MAXSYMLINKS: (libc)Symbolic Links.
* MAX_CANON: (libc)Limits for Files.
* MAX_INPUT: (libc)Limits for Files.
* MB_CUR_MAX: (libc)Selecting the Conversion.
* MB_LEN_MAX: (libc)Selecting the Conversion.
* MDMBUF: (libc)Control Modes.
* MSG_DONTROUTE: (libc)Socket Data Options.
* MSG_OOB: (libc)Socket Data Options.
* MSG_PEEK: (libc)Socket Data Options.
* NAME_MAX: (libc)Limits for Files.
* NAN: (libc)Infinity and NaN.
* NCCS: (libc)Mode Data Types.
* NGROUPS_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* NOFLSH: (libc)Local Modes.
* NOKERNINFO: (libc)Local Modes.
* NSIG: (libc)Standard Signals.
* NULL: (libc)Null Pointer Constant.
* ONLCR: (libc)Output Modes.
* ONOEOT: (libc)Output Modes.
* OPEN_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* OPOST: (libc)Output Modes.
* OXTABS: (libc)Output Modes.
* O_ACCMODE: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_APPEND: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_ASYNC: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_CREAT: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_EXCL: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_EXEC: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_EXLOCK: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_FSYNC: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_IGNORE_CTTY: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_NDELAY: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_NOATIME: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_NOCTTY: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_NOLINK: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_NONBLOCK: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_NONBLOCK: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_NOTRANS: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_RDONLY: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_RDWR: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_READ: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_SHLOCK: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_SYNC: (libc)Operating Modes.
* O_TRUNC: (libc)Open-time Flags.
* O_WRITE: (libc)Access Modes.
* O_WRONLY: (libc)Access Modes.
* PARENB: (libc)Control Modes.
* PARMRK: (libc)Input Modes.
* PARODD: (libc)Control Modes.
* PATH_MAX: (libc)Limits for Files.
* PA_FLAG_MASK: (libc)Parsing a Template String.
* PENDIN: (libc)Local Modes.
* PF_FILE: (libc)Local Namespace Details.
* PF_INET6: (libc)Internet Namespace.
* PF_INET: (libc)Internet Namespace.
* PF_LOCAL: (libc)Local Namespace Details.
* PF_UNIX: (libc)Local Namespace Details.
* PIPE_BUF: (libc)Limits for Files.
* P_tmpdir: (libc)Temporary Files.
* RAND_MAX: (libc)ISO Random.
* RE_DUP_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* RLIM_INFINITY: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* R_OK: (libc)Testing File Access.
* SA_NOCLDSTOP: (libc)Flags for Sigaction.
* SA_ONSTACK: (libc)Flags for Sigaction.
* SA_RESTART: (libc)Flags for Sigaction.
* SEEK_CUR: (libc)File Positioning.
* SEEK_END: (libc)File Positioning.
* SEEK_SET: (libc)File Positioning.
* SIGABRT: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGALRM: (libc)Alarm Signals.
* SIGBUS: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGCHLD: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGCLD: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGCONT: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGEMT: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGFPE: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGHUP: (libc)Termination Signals.
* SIGILL: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGINFO: (libc)Miscellaneous Signals.
* SIGINT: (libc)Termination Signals.
* SIGIO: (libc)Asynchronous I/O Signals.
* SIGIOT: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGKILL: (libc)Termination Signals.
* SIGLOST: (libc)Operation Error Signals.
* SIGPIPE: (libc)Operation Error Signals.
* SIGPOLL: (libc)Asynchronous I/O Signals.
* SIGPROF: (libc)Alarm Signals.
* SIGQUIT: (libc)Termination Signals.
* SIGSEGV: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGSTOP: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGSYS: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGTERM: (libc)Termination Signals.
* SIGTRAP: (libc)Program Error Signals.
* SIGTSTP: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGTTIN: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGTTOU: (libc)Job Control Signals.
* SIGURG: (libc)Asynchronous I/O Signals.
* SIGUSR1: (libc)Miscellaneous Signals.
* SIGUSR2: (libc)Miscellaneous Signals.
* SIGVTALRM: (libc)Alarm Signals.
* SIGWINCH: (libc)Miscellaneous Signals.
* SIGXCPU: (libc)Operation Error Signals.
* SIGXFSZ: (libc)Operation Error Signals.
* SIG_ERR: (libc)Basic Signal Handling.
* SOCK_DGRAM: (libc)Communication Styles.
* SOCK_RAW: (libc)Communication Styles.
* SOCK_RDM: (libc)Communication Styles.
* SOCK_SEQPACKET: (libc)Communication Styles.
* SOCK_STREAM: (libc)Communication Styles.
* SOL_SOCKET: (libc)Socket-Level Options.
* SSIZE_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* STREAM_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* SUN_LEN: (libc)Local Namespace Details.
* SV_INTERRUPT: (libc)BSD Handler.
* SV_ONSTACK: (libc)BSD Handler.
* SV_RESETHAND: (libc)BSD Handler.
* S_IFMT: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISBLK: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISCHR: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISDIR: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISFIFO: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISLNK: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISREG: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_ISSOCK: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_TYPEISMQ: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_TYPEISSEM: (libc)Testing File Type.
* S_TYPEISSHM: (libc)Testing File Type.
* TMP_MAX: (libc)Temporary Files.
* TOSTOP: (libc)Local Modes.
* TZNAME_MAX: (libc)General Limits.
* VDISCARD: (libc)Other Special.
* VDSUSP: (libc)Signal Characters.
* VEOF: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VEOL2: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VEOL: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VERASE: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VINTR: (libc)Signal Characters.
* VKILL: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VLNEXT: (libc)Other Special.
* VMIN: (libc)Noncanonical Input.
* VQUIT: (libc)Signal Characters.
* VREPRINT: (libc)Editing Characters.
* VSTART: (libc)Start/Stop Characters.
* VSTATUS: (libc)Other Special.
* VSTOP: (libc)Start/Stop Characters.
* VSUSP: (libc)Signal Characters.
* VTIME: (libc)Noncanonical Input.
* VWERASE: (libc)Editing Characters.
* WCHAR_MAX: (libc)Extended Char Intro.
* WCHAR_MIN: (libc)Extended Char Intro.
* WCOREDUMP: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WEOF: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* WEOF: (libc)Extended Char Intro.
* WEXITSTATUS: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WIFEXITED: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WIFSIGNALED: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WIFSTOPPED: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WSTOPSIG: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* WTERMSIG: (libc)Process Completion Status.
* W_OK: (libc)Testing File Access.
* X_OK: (libc)Testing File Access.
* _Complex_I: (libc)Complex Numbers.
* _Exit: (libc)Termination Internals.
* _IOFBF: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* _IOLBF: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* _IONBF: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* _Imaginary_I: (libc)Complex Numbers.
* _PATH_UTMP: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* _PATH_WTMP: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* _POSIX2_C_DEV: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX2_C_VERSION: (libc)Version Supported.
* _POSIX2_FORT_DEV: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX2_FORT_RUN: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX2_LOCALEDEF: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX2_SW_DEV: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED: (libc)Options for Files.
* _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX_NO_TRUNC: (libc)Options for Files.
* _POSIX_SAVED_IDS: (libc)System Options.
* _POSIX_VDISABLE: (libc)Options for Files.
* _POSIX_VERSION: (libc)Version Supported.
* __fbufsize: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* __flbf: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* __fpending: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* __fpurge: (libc)Flushing Buffers.
* __freadable: (libc)Opening Streams.
* __freading: (libc)Opening Streams.
* __fsetlocking: (libc)Streams and Threads.
* __fwritable: (libc)Opening Streams.
* __fwriting: (libc)Opening Streams.
* __gconv_end_fct: (libc)glibc iconv Implementation.
* __gconv_fct: (libc)glibc iconv Implementation.
* __gconv_init_fct: (libc)glibc iconv Implementation.
* __ppc_get_timebase: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_get_timebase_freq: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_mdoio: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_mdoom: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_set_ppr_low: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_set_ppr_med: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_set_ppr_med_low: (libc)PowerPC.
* __ppc_yield: (libc)PowerPC.
* __va_copy: (libc)Argument Macros.
* _exit: (libc)Termination Internals.
* _flushlbf: (libc)Flushing Buffers.
* _tolower: (libc)Case Conversion.
* _toupper: (libc)Case Conversion.
* a64l: (libc)Encode Binary Data.
* abort: (libc)Aborting a Program.
* abs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* accept: (libc)Accepting Connections.
* access: (libc)Testing File Access.
* acos: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* acosf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* acosh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* acoshf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* acoshl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* acosl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* addmntent: (libc)mtab.
* addseverity: (libc)Adding Severity Classes.
* adjtime: (libc)High-Resolution Calendar.
* adjtimex: (libc)High-Resolution Calendar.
* aio_cancel64: (libc)Cancel AIO Operations.
* aio_cancel: (libc)Cancel AIO Operations.
* aio_error64: (libc)Status of AIO Operations.
* aio_error: (libc)Status of AIO Operations.
* aio_fsync64: (libc)Synchronizing AIO Operations.
* aio_fsync: (libc)Synchronizing AIO Operations.
* aio_init: (libc)Configuration of AIO.
* aio_read64: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* aio_read: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* aio_return64: (libc)Status of AIO Operations.
* aio_return: (libc)Status of AIO Operations.
* aio_suspend64: (libc)Synchronizing AIO Operations.
* aio_suspend: (libc)Synchronizing AIO Operations.
* aio_write64: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* aio_write: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* alarm: (libc)Setting an Alarm.
* aligned_alloc: (libc)Aligned Memory Blocks.
* alloca: (libc)Variable Size Automatic.
* alphasort64: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* alphasort: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* argp_error: (libc)Argp Helper Functions.
* argp_failure: (libc)Argp Helper Functions.
* argp_help: (libc)Argp Help.
* argp_parse: (libc)Argp.
* argp_state_help: (libc)Argp Helper Functions.
* argp_usage: (libc)Argp Helper Functions.
* argz_add: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_add_sep: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_append: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_count: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_create: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_create_sep: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_delete: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_extract: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_insert: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_next: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_replace: (libc)Argz Functions.
* argz_stringify: (libc)Argz Functions.
* asctime: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* asctime_r: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* asin: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* asinf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* asinh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* asinhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* asinhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* asinl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* asprintf: (libc)Dynamic Output.
* assert: (libc)Consistency Checking.
* assert_perror: (libc)Consistency Checking.
* atan2: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atan2f: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atan2l: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atan: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atanf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atanh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* atanhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* atanhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* atanl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* atexit: (libc)Cleanups on Exit.
* atof: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* atoi: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* atol: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* atoll: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* backtrace: (libc)Backtraces.
* backtrace_symbols: (libc)Backtraces.
* backtrace_symbols_fd: (libc)Backtraces.
* basename: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* basename: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* bcmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* bcopy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* bind: (libc)Setting Address.
* bind_textdomain_codeset: (libc)Charset conversion in gettext.
* bindtextdomain: (libc)Locating gettext catalog.
* brk: (libc)Resizing the Data Segment.
* bsearch: (libc)Array Search Function.
* btowc: (libc)Converting a Character.
* bzero: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* cabs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* cabsf: (libc)Absolute Value.
* cabsl: (libc)Absolute Value.
* cacos: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* cacosf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* cacosh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* cacoshf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* cacoshl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* cacosl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* calloc: (libc)Allocating Cleared Space.
* canonicalize_file_name: (libc)Symbolic Links.
* carg: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cargf: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cargl: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* casin: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* casinf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* casinh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* casinhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* casinhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* casinl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* catan: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* catanf: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* catanh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* catanhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* catanhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* catanl: (libc)Inverse Trig Functions.
* catclose: (libc)The catgets Functions.
* catgets: (libc)The catgets Functions.
* catopen: (libc)The catgets Functions.
* cbc_crypt: (libc)DES Encryption.
* cbrt: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cbrtf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cbrtl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* ccos: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ccosf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ccosh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ccoshf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ccoshl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ccosl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ceil: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* ceilf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* ceill: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* cexp: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cexpf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cexpl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cfgetispeed: (libc)Line Speed.
* cfgetospeed: (libc)Line Speed.
* cfmakeraw: (libc)Noncanonical Input.
* cfree: (libc)Freeing after Malloc.
* cfsetispeed: (libc)Line Speed.
* cfsetospeed: (libc)Line Speed.
* cfsetspeed: (libc)Line Speed.
* chdir: (libc)Working Directory.
* chmod: (libc)Setting Permissions.
* chown: (libc)File Owner.
* cimag: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cimagf: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cimagl: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* clearenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* clearerr: (libc)Error Recovery.
* clearerr_unlocked: (libc)Error Recovery.
* clock: (libc)CPU Time.
* clog10: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* clog10f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* clog10l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* clog: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* clogf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* clogl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* close: (libc)Opening and Closing Files.
* closedir: (libc)Reading/Closing Directory.
* closelog: (libc)closelog.
* confstr: (libc)String Parameters.
* conj: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* conjf: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* conjl: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* connect: (libc)Connecting.
* copysign: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* copysignf: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* copysignl: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* cos: (libc)Trig Functions.
* cosf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* cosh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* coshf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* coshl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* cosl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* cpow: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cpowf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cpowl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* cproj: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cprojf: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* cprojl: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* creal: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* crealf: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* creall: (libc)Operations on Complex.
* creat64: (libc)Opening and Closing Files.
* creat: (libc)Opening and Closing Files.
* crypt: (libc)crypt.
* crypt_r: (libc)crypt.
* csin: (libc)Trig Functions.
* csinf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* csinh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* csinhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* csinhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* csinl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* csqrt: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* csqrtf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* csqrtl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* ctan: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ctanf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ctanh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ctanhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ctanhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* ctanl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* ctermid: (libc)Identifying the Terminal.
* ctime: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* ctime_r: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* cuserid: (libc)Who Logged In.
* dcgettext: (libc)Translation with gettext.
* dcngettext: (libc)Advanced gettext functions.
* des_setparity: (libc)DES Encryption.
* dgettext: (libc)Translation with gettext.
* difftime: (libc)Elapsed Time.
* dirfd: (libc)Opening a Directory.
* dirname: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* div: (libc)Integer Division.
* dngettext: (libc)Advanced gettext functions.
* drand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* drand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* drem: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* dremf: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* dreml: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* dup2: (libc)Duplicating Descriptors.
* dup: (libc)Duplicating Descriptors.
* ecb_crypt: (libc)DES Encryption.
* ecvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* ecvt_r: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* encrypt: (libc)DES Encryption.
* encrypt_r: (libc)DES Encryption.
* endfsent: (libc)fstab.
* endgrent: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* endhostent: (libc)Host Names.
* endmntent: (libc)mtab.
* endnetent: (libc)Networks Database.
* endnetgrent: (libc)Lookup Netgroup.
* endprotoent: (libc)Protocols Database.
* endpwent: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* endservent: (libc)Services Database.
* endutent: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* endutxent: (libc)XPG Functions.
* envz_add: (libc)Envz Functions.
* envz_entry: (libc)Envz Functions.
* envz_get: (libc)Envz Functions.
* envz_merge: (libc)Envz Functions.
* envz_strip: (libc)Envz Functions.
* erand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* erand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* erf: (libc)Special Functions.
* erfc: (libc)Special Functions.
* erfcf: (libc)Special Functions.
* erfcl: (libc)Special Functions.
* erff: (libc)Special Functions.
* erfl: (libc)Special Functions.
* err: (libc)Error Messages.
* errno: (libc)Checking for Errors.
* error: (libc)Error Messages.
* error_at_line: (libc)Error Messages.
* errx: (libc)Error Messages.
* execl: (libc)Executing a File.
* execle: (libc)Executing a File.
* execlp: (libc)Executing a File.
* execv: (libc)Executing a File.
* execve: (libc)Executing a File.
* execvp: (libc)Executing a File.
* exit: (libc)Normal Termination.
* exp10: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp10f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp10l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp2: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp2f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp2l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* exp: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* expf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* expl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* expm1: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* expm1f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* expm1l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* fabs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* fabsf: (libc)Absolute Value.
* fabsl: (libc)Absolute Value.
* fchdir: (libc)Working Directory.
* fchmod: (libc)Setting Permissions.
* fchown: (libc)File Owner.
* fclose: (libc)Closing Streams.
* fcloseall: (libc)Closing Streams.
* fcntl: (libc)Control Operations.
* fcvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* fcvt_r: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* fdatasync: (libc)Synchronizing I/O.
* fdim: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fdimf: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fdiml: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fdopen: (libc)Descriptors and Streams.
* fdopendir: (libc)Opening a Directory.
* feclearexcept: (libc)Status bit operations.
* fedisableexcept: (libc)Control Functions.
* feenableexcept: (libc)Control Functions.
* fegetenv: (libc)Control Functions.
* fegetexcept: (libc)Control Functions.
* fegetexceptflag: (libc)Status bit operations.
* fegetround: (libc)Rounding.
* feholdexcept: (libc)Control Functions.
* feof: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* feof_unlocked: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* feraiseexcept: (libc)Status bit operations.
* ferror: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* ferror_unlocked: (libc)EOF and Errors.
* fesetenv: (libc)Control Functions.
* fesetexceptflag: (libc)Status bit operations.
* fesetround: (libc)Rounding.
* fetestexcept: (libc)Status bit operations.
* feupdateenv: (libc)Control Functions.
* fflush: (libc)Flushing Buffers.
* fflush_unlocked: (libc)Flushing Buffers.
* fgetc: (libc)Character Input.
* fgetc_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* fgetgrent: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* fgetgrent_r: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* fgetpos64: (libc)Portable Positioning.
* fgetpos: (libc)Portable Positioning.
* fgetpwent: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* fgetpwent_r: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* fgets: (libc)Line Input.
* fgets_unlocked: (libc)Line Input.
* fgetwc: (libc)Character Input.
* fgetwc_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* fgetws: (libc)Line Input.
* fgetws_unlocked: (libc)Line Input.
* fileno: (libc)Descriptors and Streams.
* fileno_unlocked: (libc)Descriptors and Streams.
* finite: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* finitef: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* finitel: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* flockfile: (libc)Streams and Threads.
* floor: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* floorf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* floorl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* fma: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmaf: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmal: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmax: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmaxf: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmaxl: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmemopen: (libc)String Streams.
* fmin: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fminf: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fminl: (libc)Misc FP Arithmetic.
* fmod: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* fmodf: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* fmodl: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* fmtmsg: (libc)Printing Formatted Messages.
* fnmatch: (libc)Wildcard Matching.
* fopen64: (libc)Opening Streams.
* fopen: (libc)Opening Streams.
* fopencookie: (libc)Streams and Cookies.
* fork: (libc)Creating a Process.
* forkpty: (libc)Pseudo-Terminal Pairs.
* fpathconf: (libc)Pathconf.
* fpclassify: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* fprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* fputc: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputc_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputs: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputs_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputwc: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputwc_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputws: (libc)Simple Output.
* fputws_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* fread: (libc)Block Input/Output.
* fread_unlocked: (libc)Block Input/Output.
* free: (libc)Freeing after Malloc.
* freopen64: (libc)Opening Streams.
* freopen: (libc)Opening Streams.
* frexp: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* frexpf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* frexpl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* fscanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* fseek: (libc)File Positioning.
* fseeko64: (libc)File Positioning.
* fseeko: (libc)File Positioning.
* fsetpos64: (libc)Portable Positioning.
* fsetpos: (libc)Portable Positioning.
* fstat64: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* fstat: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* fsync: (libc)Synchronizing I/O.
* ftell: (libc)File Positioning.
* ftello64: (libc)File Positioning.
* ftello: (libc)File Positioning.
* ftruncate64: (libc)File Size.
* ftruncate: (libc)File Size.
* ftrylockfile: (libc)Streams and Threads.
* ftw64: (libc)Working with Directory Trees.
* ftw: (libc)Working with Directory Trees.
* funlockfile: (libc)Streams and Threads.
* futimes: (libc)File Times.
* fwide: (libc)Streams and I18N.
* fwprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* fwrite: (libc)Block Input/Output.
* fwrite_unlocked: (libc)Block Input/Output.
* fwscanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* gamma: (libc)Special Functions.
* gammaf: (libc)Special Functions.
* gammal: (libc)Special Functions.
* gcvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* get_avphys_pages: (libc)Query Memory Parameters.
* get_current_dir_name: (libc)Working Directory.
* get_nprocs: (libc)Processor Resources.
* get_nprocs_conf: (libc)Processor Resources.
* get_phys_pages: (libc)Query Memory Parameters.
* getauxval: (libc)Auxiliary Vector.
* getc: (libc)Character Input.
* getc_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* getchar: (libc)Character Input.
* getchar_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* getcontext: (libc)System V contexts.
* getcwd: (libc)Working Directory.
* getdate: (libc)General Time String Parsing.
* getdate_r: (libc)General Time String Parsing.
* getdelim: (libc)Line Input.
* getdomainnname: (libc)Host Identification.
* getegid: (libc)Reading Persona.
* getenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* geteuid: (libc)Reading Persona.
* getfsent: (libc)fstab.
* getfsfile: (libc)fstab.
* getfsspec: (libc)fstab.
* getgid: (libc)Reading Persona.
* getgrent: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* getgrent_r: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* getgrgid: (libc)Lookup Group.
* getgrgid_r: (libc)Lookup Group.
* getgrnam: (libc)Lookup Group.
* getgrnam_r: (libc)Lookup Group.
* getgrouplist: (libc)Setting Groups.
* getgroups: (libc)Reading Persona.
* gethostbyaddr: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostbyaddr_r: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostbyname2: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostbyname2_r: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostbyname: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostbyname_r: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostent: (libc)Host Names.
* gethostid: (libc)Host Identification.
* gethostname: (libc)Host Identification.
* getitimer: (libc)Setting an Alarm.
* getline: (libc)Line Input.
* getloadavg: (libc)Processor Resources.
* getlogin: (libc)Who Logged In.
* getmntent: (libc)mtab.
* getmntent_r: (libc)mtab.
* getnetbyaddr: (libc)Networks Database.
* getnetbyname: (libc)Networks Database.
* getnetent: (libc)Networks Database.
* getnetgrent: (libc)Lookup Netgroup.
* getnetgrent_r: (libc)Lookup Netgroup.
* getopt: (libc)Using Getopt.
* getopt_long: (libc)Getopt Long Options.
* getopt_long_only: (libc)Getopt Long Options.
* getpagesize: (libc)Query Memory Parameters.
* getpass: (libc)getpass.
* getpeername: (libc)Who is Connected.
* getpgid: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* getpgrp: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* getpid: (libc)Process Identification.
* getppid: (libc)Process Identification.
* getpriority: (libc)Traditional Scheduling Functions.
* getprotobyname: (libc)Protocols Database.
* getprotobynumber: (libc)Protocols Database.
* getprotoent: (libc)Protocols Database.
* getpt: (libc)Allocation.
* getpwent: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* getpwent_r: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* getpwnam: (libc)Lookup User.
* getpwnam_r: (libc)Lookup User.
* getpwuid: (libc)Lookup User.
* getpwuid_r: (libc)Lookup User.
* getrlimit64: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* getrlimit: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* getrusage: (libc)Resource Usage.
* gets: (libc)Line Input.
* getservbyname: (libc)Services Database.
* getservbyport: (libc)Services Database.
* getservent: (libc)Services Database.
* getsid: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* getsockname: (libc)Reading Address.
* getsockopt: (libc)Socket Option Functions.
* getsubopt: (libc)Suboptions.
* gettext: (libc)Translation with gettext.
* gettimeofday: (libc)High-Resolution Calendar.
* getuid: (libc)Reading Persona.
* getumask: (libc)Setting Permissions.
* getutent: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutent_r: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutid: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutid_r: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutline: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutline_r: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* getutmp: (libc)XPG Functions.
* getutmpx: (libc)XPG Functions.
* getutxent: (libc)XPG Functions.
* getutxid: (libc)XPG Functions.
* getutxline: (libc)XPG Functions.
* getw: (libc)Character Input.
* getwc: (libc)Character Input.
* getwc_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* getwchar: (libc)Character Input.
* getwchar_unlocked: (libc)Character Input.
* getwd: (libc)Working Directory.
* glob64: (libc)Calling Glob.
* glob: (libc)Calling Glob.
* globfree64: (libc)More Flags for Globbing.
* globfree: (libc)More Flags for Globbing.
* gmtime: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* gmtime_r: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* grantpt: (libc)Allocation.
* gsignal: (libc)Signaling Yourself.
* gtty: (libc)BSD Terminal Modes.
* hasmntopt: (libc)mtab.
* hcreate: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* hcreate_r: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* hdestroy: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* hdestroy_r: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* hsearch: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* hsearch_r: (libc)Hash Search Function.
* htonl: (libc)Byte Order.
* htons: (libc)Byte Order.
* hypot: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* hypotf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* hypotl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* iconv: (libc)Generic Conversion Interface.
* iconv_close: (libc)Generic Conversion Interface.
* iconv_open: (libc)Generic Conversion Interface.
* if_freenameindex: (libc)Interface Naming.
* if_indextoname: (libc)Interface Naming.
* if_nameindex: (libc)Interface Naming.
* if_nametoindex: (libc)Interface Naming.
* ilogb: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* ilogbf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* ilogbl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* imaxabs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* imaxdiv: (libc)Integer Division.
* in6addr_any: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* in6addr_loopback: (libc)Host Address Data Type.
* index: (libc)Search Functions.
* inet_addr: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_aton: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_lnaof: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_makeaddr: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_netof: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_network: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_ntoa: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_ntop: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* inet_pton: (libc)Host Address Functions.
* initgroups: (libc)Setting Groups.
* initstate: (libc)BSD Random.
* initstate_r: (libc)BSD Random.
* innetgr: (libc)Netgroup Membership.
* ioctl: (libc)IOCTLs.
* isalnum: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isalpha: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isascii: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isatty: (libc)Is It a Terminal.
* isblank: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* iscntrl: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isdigit: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isfinite: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isgraph: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isgreater: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* isgreaterequal: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* isinf: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isinff: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isinfl: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isless: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* islessequal: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* islessgreater: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* islower: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isnan: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isnan: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isnanf: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isnanl: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isnormal: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isprint: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* ispunct: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* issignaling: (libc)Floating Point Classes.
* isspace: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* isunordered: (libc)FP Comparison Functions.
* isupper: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* iswalnum: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswalpha: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswblank: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswcntrl: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswctype: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswdigit: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswgraph: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswlower: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswprint: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswpunct: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswspace: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswupper: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* iswxdigit: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* isxdigit: (libc)Classification of Characters.
* j0: (libc)Special Functions.
* j0f: (libc)Special Functions.
* j0l: (libc)Special Functions.
* j1: (libc)Special Functions.
* j1f: (libc)Special Functions.
* j1l: (libc)Special Functions.
* jn: (libc)Special Functions.
* jnf: (libc)Special Functions.
* jnl: (libc)Special Functions.
* jrand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* jrand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* kill: (libc)Signaling Another Process.
* killpg: (libc)Signaling Another Process.
* l64a: (libc)Encode Binary Data.
* labs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* lcong48: (libc)SVID Random.
* lcong48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* ldexp: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* ldexpf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* ldexpl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* ldiv: (libc)Integer Division.
* lfind: (libc)Array Search Function.
* lgamma: (libc)Special Functions.
* lgamma_r: (libc)Special Functions.
* lgammaf: (libc)Special Functions.
* lgammaf_r: (libc)Special Functions.
* lgammal: (libc)Special Functions.
* lgammal_r: (libc)Special Functions.
* link: (libc)Hard Links.
* lio_listio64: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* lio_listio: (libc)Asynchronous Reads/Writes.
* listen: (libc)Listening.
* llabs: (libc)Absolute Value.
* lldiv: (libc)Integer Division.
* llrint: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* llrintf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* llrintl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* llround: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* llroundf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* llroundl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* localeconv: (libc)The Lame Way to Locale Data.
* localtime: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* localtime_r: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* log10: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log10f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log10l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log1p: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log1pf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log1pl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log2: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log2f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log2l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* log: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* logb: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* logbf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* logbl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* logf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* login: (libc)Logging In and Out.
* login_tty: (libc)Logging In and Out.
* logl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* logout: (libc)Logging In and Out.
* logwtmp: (libc)Logging In and Out.
* longjmp: (libc)Non-Local Details.
* lrand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* lrand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* lrint: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lrintf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lrintl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lround: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lroundf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lroundl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* lsearch: (libc)Array Search Function.
* lseek64: (libc)File Position Primitive.
* lseek: (libc)File Position Primitive.
* lstat64: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* lstat: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* lutimes: (libc)File Times.
* madvise: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* makecontext: (libc)System V contexts.
* mallinfo: (libc)Statistics of Malloc.
* malloc: (libc)Basic Allocation.
* mallopt: (libc)Malloc Tunable Parameters.
* mblen: (libc)Non-reentrant Character Conversion.
* mbrlen: (libc)Converting a Character.
* mbrtowc: (libc)Converting a Character.
* mbsinit: (libc)Keeping the state.
* mbsnrtowcs: (libc)Converting Strings.
* mbsrtowcs: (libc)Converting Strings.
* mbstowcs: (libc)Non-reentrant String Conversion.
* mbtowc: (libc)Non-reentrant Character Conversion.
* mcheck: (libc)Heap Consistency Checking.
* memalign: (libc)Aligned Memory Blocks.
* memccpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* memchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* memcmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* memcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* memfrob: (libc)Trivial Encryption.
* memmem: (libc)Search Functions.
* memmove: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* mempcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* memrchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* memset: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* mkdir: (libc)Creating Directories.
* mkdtemp: (libc)Temporary Files.
* mkfifo: (libc)FIFO Special Files.
* mknod: (libc)Making Special Files.
* mkstemp: (libc)Temporary Files.
* mktemp: (libc)Temporary Files.
* mktime: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* mlock: (libc)Page Lock Functions.
* mlockall: (libc)Page Lock Functions.
* mmap64: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* mmap: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* modf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* modff: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* modfl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* mount: (libc)Mount-Unmount-Remount.
* mprobe: (libc)Heap Consistency Checking.
* mrand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* mrand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* mremap: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* msync: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* mtrace: (libc)Tracing malloc.
* munlock: (libc)Page Lock Functions.
* munlockall: (libc)Page Lock Functions.
* munmap: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* muntrace: (libc)Tracing malloc.
* nan: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nanf: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nanl: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nanosleep: (libc)Sleeping.
* nearbyint: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* nearbyintf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* nearbyintl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* nextafter: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nextafterf: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nextafterl: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nexttoward: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nexttowardf: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nexttowardl: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* nftw64: (libc)Working with Directory Trees.
* nftw: (libc)Working with Directory Trees.
* ngettext: (libc)Advanced gettext functions.
* nice: (libc)Traditional Scheduling Functions.
* nl_langinfo: (libc)The Elegant and Fast Way.
* nrand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* nrand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* ntohl: (libc)Byte Order.
* ntohs: (libc)Byte Order.
* ntp_adjtime: (libc)High Accuracy Clock.
* ntp_gettime: (libc)High Accuracy Clock.
* obstack_1grow: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_1grow_fast: (libc)Extra Fast Growing.
* obstack_alignment_mask: (libc)Obstacks Data Alignment.
* obstack_alloc: (libc)Allocation in an Obstack.
* obstack_base: (libc)Status of an Obstack.
* obstack_blank: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_blank_fast: (libc)Extra Fast Growing.
* obstack_chunk_size: (libc)Obstack Chunks.
* obstack_copy0: (libc)Allocation in an Obstack.
* obstack_copy: (libc)Allocation in an Obstack.
* obstack_finish: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_free: (libc)Freeing Obstack Objects.
* obstack_grow0: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_grow: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_init: (libc)Preparing for Obstacks.
* obstack_int_grow: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_int_grow_fast: (libc)Extra Fast Growing.
* obstack_next_free: (libc)Status of an Obstack.
* obstack_object_size: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_object_size: (libc)Status of an Obstack.
* obstack_printf: (libc)Dynamic Output.
* obstack_ptr_grow: (libc)Growing Objects.
* obstack_ptr_grow_fast: (libc)Extra Fast Growing.
* obstack_room: (libc)Extra Fast Growing.
* obstack_vprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* offsetof: (libc)Structure Measurement.
* on_exit: (libc)Cleanups on Exit.
* open64: (libc)Opening and Closing Files.
* open: (libc)Opening and Closing Files.
* open_memstream: (libc)String Streams.
* opendir: (libc)Opening a Directory.
* openlog: (libc)openlog.
* openpty: (libc)Pseudo-Terminal Pairs.
* parse_printf_format: (libc)Parsing a Template String.
* pathconf: (libc)Pathconf.
* pause: (libc)Using Pause.
* pclose: (libc)Pipe to a Subprocess.
* perror: (libc)Error Messages.
* pipe: (libc)Creating a Pipe.
* popen: (libc)Pipe to a Subprocess.
* posix_memalign: (libc)Aligned Memory Blocks.
* pow10: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* pow10f: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* pow10l: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* pow: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* powf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* powl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* pread64: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* pread: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* printf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* printf_size: (libc)Predefined Printf Handlers.
* printf_size_info: (libc)Predefined Printf Handlers.
* psignal: (libc)Signal Messages.
* pthread_getattr_default_np: (libc)Default Thread Attributes.
* pthread_getspecific: (libc)Thread-specific Data.
* pthread_key_create: (libc)Thread-specific Data.
* pthread_key_delete: (libc)Thread-specific Data.
* pthread_setattr_default_np: (libc)Default Thread Attributes.
* pthread_setspecific: (libc)Thread-specific Data.
* ptsname: (libc)Allocation.
* ptsname_r: (libc)Allocation.
* putc: (libc)Simple Output.
* putc_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* putchar: (libc)Simple Output.
* putchar_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* putenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* putpwent: (libc)Writing a User Entry.
* puts: (libc)Simple Output.
* pututline: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* pututxline: (libc)XPG Functions.
* putw: (libc)Simple Output.
* putwc: (libc)Simple Output.
* putwc_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* putwchar: (libc)Simple Output.
* putwchar_unlocked: (libc)Simple Output.
* pwrite64: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* pwrite: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* qecvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* qecvt_r: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* qfcvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* qfcvt_r: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* qgcvt: (libc)System V Number Conversion.
* qsort: (libc)Array Sort Function.
* raise: (libc)Signaling Yourself.
* rand: (libc)ISO Random.
* rand_r: (libc)ISO Random.
* random: (libc)BSD Random.
* random_r: (libc)BSD Random.
* rawmemchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* read: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* readdir64: (libc)Reading/Closing Directory.
* readdir64_r: (libc)Reading/Closing Directory.
* readdir: (libc)Reading/Closing Directory.
* readdir_r: (libc)Reading/Closing Directory.
* readlink: (libc)Symbolic Links.
* readv: (libc)Scatter-Gather.
* realloc: (libc)Changing Block Size.
* realpath: (libc)Symbolic Links.
* recv: (libc)Receiving Data.
* recvfrom: (libc)Receiving Datagrams.
* recvmsg: (libc)Receiving Datagrams.
* regcomp: (libc)POSIX Regexp Compilation.
* regerror: (libc)Regexp Cleanup.
* regexec: (libc)Matching POSIX Regexps.
* regfree: (libc)Regexp Cleanup.
* register_printf_function: (libc)Registering New Conversions.
* remainder: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* remainderf: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* remainderl: (libc)Remainder Functions.
* remove: (libc)Deleting Files.
* rename: (libc)Renaming Files.
* rewind: (libc)File Positioning.
* rewinddir: (libc)Random Access Directory.
* rindex: (libc)Search Functions.
* rint: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* rintf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* rintl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* rmdir: (libc)Deleting Files.
* round: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* roundf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* roundl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* rpmatch: (libc)Yes-or-No Questions.
* sbrk: (libc)Resizing the Data Segment.
* scalb: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbln: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalblnf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalblnl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbn: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbnf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scalbnl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* scandir64: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* scandir: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* scanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* sched_get_priority_max: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_get_priority_min: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_getaffinity: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* sched_getparam: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_getscheduler: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_rr_get_interval: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_setaffinity: (libc)CPU Affinity.
* sched_setparam: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_setscheduler: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* sched_yield: (libc)Basic Scheduling Functions.
* secure_getenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* seed48: (libc)SVID Random.
* seed48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* seekdir: (libc)Random Access Directory.
* select: (libc)Waiting for I/O.
* send: (libc)Sending Data.
* sendmsg: (libc)Receiving Datagrams.
* sendto: (libc)Sending Datagrams.
* setbuf: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* setbuffer: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* setcontext: (libc)System V contexts.
* setdomainname: (libc)Host Identification.
* setegid: (libc)Setting Groups.
* setenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* seteuid: (libc)Setting User ID.
* setfsent: (libc)fstab.
* setgid: (libc)Setting Groups.
* setgrent: (libc)Scanning All Groups.
* setgroups: (libc)Setting Groups.
* sethostent: (libc)Host Names.
* sethostid: (libc)Host Identification.
* sethostname: (libc)Host Identification.
* setitimer: (libc)Setting an Alarm.
* setjmp: (libc)Non-Local Details.
* setkey: (libc)DES Encryption.
* setkey_r: (libc)DES Encryption.
* setlinebuf: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* setlocale: (libc)Setting the Locale.
* setlogmask: (libc)setlogmask.
* setmntent: (libc)mtab.
* setnetent: (libc)Networks Database.
* setnetgrent: (libc)Lookup Netgroup.
* setpgid: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* setpgrp: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* setpriority: (libc)Traditional Scheduling Functions.
* setprotoent: (libc)Protocols Database.
* setpwent: (libc)Scanning All Users.
* setregid: (libc)Setting Groups.
* setreuid: (libc)Setting User ID.
* setrlimit64: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* setrlimit: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* setservent: (libc)Services Database.
* setsid: (libc)Process Group Functions.
* setsockopt: (libc)Socket Option Functions.
* setstate: (libc)BSD Random.
* setstate_r: (libc)BSD Random.
* settimeofday: (libc)High-Resolution Calendar.
* setuid: (libc)Setting User ID.
* setutent: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* setutxent: (libc)XPG Functions.
* setvbuf: (libc)Controlling Buffering.
* shm_open: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* shm_unlink: (libc)Memory-mapped I/O.
* shutdown: (libc)Closing a Socket.
* sigaction: (libc)Advanced Signal Handling.
* sigaddset: (libc)Signal Sets.
* sigaltstack: (libc)Signal Stack.
* sigblock: (libc)Blocking in BSD.
* sigdelset: (libc)Signal Sets.
* sigemptyset: (libc)Signal Sets.
* sigfillset: (libc)Signal Sets.
* siginterrupt: (libc)BSD Handler.
* sigismember: (libc)Signal Sets.
* siglongjmp: (libc)Non-Local Exits and Signals.
* sigmask: (libc)Blocking in BSD.
* signal: (libc)Basic Signal Handling.
* signbit: (libc)FP Bit Twiddling.
* significand: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* significandf: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* significandl: (libc)Normalization Functions.
* sigpause: (libc)Blocking in BSD.
* sigpending: (libc)Checking for Pending Signals.
* sigprocmask: (libc)Process Signal Mask.
* sigsetjmp: (libc)Non-Local Exits and Signals.
* sigsetmask: (libc)Blocking in BSD.
* sigstack: (libc)Signal Stack.
* sigsuspend: (libc)Sigsuspend.
* sigvec: (libc)BSD Handler.
* sin: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sincos: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sincosf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sincosl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sinf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sinh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* sinhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* sinhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* sinl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* sleep: (libc)Sleeping.
* snprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* socket: (libc)Creating a Socket.
* socketpair: (libc)Socket Pairs.
* sprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* sqrt: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* sqrtf: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* sqrtl: (libc)Exponents and Logarithms.
* srand48: (libc)SVID Random.
* srand48_r: (libc)SVID Random.
* srand: (libc)ISO Random.
* srandom: (libc)BSD Random.
* srandom_r: (libc)BSD Random.
* sscanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* ssignal: (libc)Basic Signal Handling.
* stat64: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* stat: (libc)Reading Attributes.
* stime: (libc)Simple Calendar Time.
* stpcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* stpncpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strcasecmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* strcasestr: (libc)Search Functions.
* strcat: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* strchrnul: (libc)Search Functions.
* strcmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* strcoll: (libc)Collation Functions.
* strcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strcspn: (libc)Search Functions.
* strdup: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strdupa: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strerror: (libc)Error Messages.
* strerror_r: (libc)Error Messages.
* strfmon: (libc)Formatting Numbers.
* strfry: (libc)strfry.
* strftime: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* strlen: (libc)String Length.
* strncasecmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* strncat: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strncmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* strncpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strndup: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strndupa: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* strnlen: (libc)String Length.
* strpbrk: (libc)Search Functions.
* strptime: (libc)Low-Level Time String Parsing.
* strrchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* strsep: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* strsignal: (libc)Signal Messages.
* strspn: (libc)Search Functions.
* strstr: (libc)Search Functions.
* strtod: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* strtof: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* strtoimax: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtok: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* strtok_r: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* strtol: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtold: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* strtoll: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtoq: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtoul: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtoull: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtoumax: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strtouq: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* strverscmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* strxfrm: (libc)Collation Functions.
* stty: (libc)BSD Terminal Modes.
* swapcontext: (libc)System V contexts.
* swprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* swscanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* symlink: (libc)Symbolic Links.
* sync: (libc)Synchronizing I/O.
* syscall: (libc)System Calls.
* sysconf: (libc)Sysconf Definition.
* sysctl: (libc)System Parameters.
* syslog: (libc)syslog; vsyslog.
* system: (libc)Running a Command.
* sysv_signal: (libc)Basic Signal Handling.
* tan: (libc)Trig Functions.
* tanf: (libc)Trig Functions.
* tanh: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* tanhf: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* tanhl: (libc)Hyperbolic Functions.
* tanl: (libc)Trig Functions.
* tcdrain: (libc)Line Control.
* tcflow: (libc)Line Control.
* tcflush: (libc)Line Control.
* tcgetattr: (libc)Mode Functions.
* tcgetpgrp: (libc)Terminal Access Functions.
* tcgetsid: (libc)Terminal Access Functions.
* tcsendbreak: (libc)Line Control.
* tcsetattr: (libc)Mode Functions.
* tcsetpgrp: (libc)Terminal Access Functions.
* tdelete: (libc)Tree Search Function.
* tdestroy: (libc)Tree Search Function.
* telldir: (libc)Random Access Directory.
* tempnam: (libc)Temporary Files.
* textdomain: (libc)Locating gettext catalog.
* tfind: (libc)Tree Search Function.
* tgamma: (libc)Special Functions.
* tgammaf: (libc)Special Functions.
* tgammal: (libc)Special Functions.
* time: (libc)Simple Calendar Time.
* timegm: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* timelocal: (libc)Broken-down Time.
* times: (libc)Processor Time.
* tmpfile64: (libc)Temporary Files.
* tmpfile: (libc)Temporary Files.
* tmpnam: (libc)Temporary Files.
* tmpnam_r: (libc)Temporary Files.
* toascii: (libc)Case Conversion.
* tolower: (libc)Case Conversion.
* toupper: (libc)Case Conversion.
* towctrans: (libc)Wide Character Case Conversion.
* towlower: (libc)Wide Character Case Conversion.
* towupper: (libc)Wide Character Case Conversion.
* trunc: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* truncate64: (libc)File Size.
* truncate: (libc)File Size.
* truncf: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* truncl: (libc)Rounding Functions.
* tsearch: (libc)Tree Search Function.
* ttyname: (libc)Is It a Terminal.
* ttyname_r: (libc)Is It a Terminal.
* twalk: (libc)Tree Search Function.
* tzset: (libc)Time Zone Functions.
* ulimit: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* umask: (libc)Setting Permissions.
* umount2: (libc)Mount-Unmount-Remount.
* umount: (libc)Mount-Unmount-Remount.
* uname: (libc)Platform Type.
* ungetc: (libc)How Unread.
* ungetwc: (libc)How Unread.
* unlink: (libc)Deleting Files.
* unlockpt: (libc)Allocation.
* unsetenv: (libc)Environment Access.
* updwtmp: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* utime: (libc)File Times.
* utimes: (libc)File Times.
* utmpname: (libc)Manipulating the Database.
* utmpxname: (libc)XPG Functions.
* va_arg: (libc)Argument Macros.
* va_copy: (libc)Argument Macros.
* va_end: (libc)Argument Macros.
* va_start: (libc)Argument Macros.
* valloc: (libc)Aligned Memory Blocks.
* vasprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* verr: (libc)Error Messages.
* verrx: (libc)Error Messages.
* versionsort64: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* versionsort: (libc)Scanning Directory Content.
* vfork: (libc)Creating a Process.
* vfprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vfscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* vfwprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vfwscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* vlimit: (libc)Limits on Resources.
* vprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* vsnprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vsprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vsscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* vswprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vswscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* vsyslog: (libc)syslog; vsyslog.
* vtimes: (libc)Resource Usage.
* vwarn: (libc)Error Messages.
* vwarnx: (libc)Error Messages.
* vwprintf: (libc)Variable Arguments Output.
* vwscanf: (libc)Variable Arguments Input.
* wait3: (libc)BSD Wait Functions.
* wait4: (libc)Process Completion.
* wait: (libc)Process Completion.
* waitpid: (libc)Process Completion.
* warn: (libc)Error Messages.
* warnx: (libc)Error Messages.
* wcpcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcpncpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcrtomb: (libc)Converting a Character.
* wcscasecmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* wcscat: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcschr: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcschrnul: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcscmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* wcscoll: (libc)Collation Functions.
* wcscpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcscspn: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcsdup: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcsftime: (libc)Formatting Calendar Time.
* wcslen: (libc)String Length.
* wcsncasecmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* wcsncat: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcsncmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* wcsncpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wcsnlen: (libc)String Length.
* wcsnrtombs: (libc)Converting Strings.
* wcspbrk: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcsrchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcsrtombs: (libc)Converting Strings.
* wcsspn: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcsstr: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcstod: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* wcstof: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* wcstoimax: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstok: (libc)Finding Tokens in a String.
* wcstol: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstold: (libc)Parsing of Floats.
* wcstoll: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstombs: (libc)Non-reentrant String Conversion.
* wcstoq: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstoul: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstoull: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstoumax: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcstouq: (libc)Parsing of Integers.
* wcswcs: (libc)Search Functions.
* wcsxfrm: (libc)Collation Functions.
* wctob: (libc)Converting a Character.
* wctomb: (libc)Non-reentrant Character Conversion.
* wctrans: (libc)Wide Character Case Conversion.
* wctype: (libc)Classification of Wide Characters.
* wmemchr: (libc)Search Functions.
* wmemcmp: (libc)String/Array Comparison.
* wmemcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wmemmove: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wmempcpy: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wmemset: (libc)Copying and Concatenation.
* wordexp: (libc)Calling Wordexp.
* wordfree: (libc)Calling Wordexp.
* wprintf: (libc)Formatted Output Functions.
* write: (libc)I/O Primitives.
* writev: (libc)Scatter-Gather.
* wscanf: (libc)Formatted Input Functions.
* y0: (libc)Special Functions.
* y0f: (libc)Special Functions.
* y0l: (libc)Special Functions.
* y1: (libc)Special Functions.
* y1f: (libc)Special Functions.
* y1l: (libc)Special Functions.
* yn: (libc)Special Functions.
* ynf: (libc)Special Functions.
* ynl: (libc)Special Functions.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY

File: libc.info, Node: Arithmetic, Next: Date and Time, Prev: Mathematics, Up: Top
20 Arithmetic Functions
***********************
This chapter contains information about functions for doing basic
arithmetic operations, such as splitting a float into its integer and
fractional parts or retrieving the imaginary part of a complex value.
These functions are declared in the header files 'math.h' and
'complex.h'.
* Menu:
* Integers:: Basic integer types and concepts
* Integer Division:: Integer division with guaranteed rounding.
* Floating Point Numbers:: Basic concepts. IEEE 754.
* Floating Point Classes:: The five kinds of floating-point number.
* Floating Point Errors:: When something goes wrong in a calculation.
* Rounding:: Controlling how results are rounded.
* Control Functions:: Saving and restoring the FPU's state.
* Arithmetic Functions:: Fundamental operations provided by the library.
* Complex Numbers:: The types. Writing complex constants.
* Operations on Complex:: Projection, conjugation, decomposition.
* Parsing of Numbers:: Converting strings to numbers.
* System V Number Conversion:: An archaic way to convert numbers to strings.

File: libc.info, Node: Integers, Next: Integer Division, Up: Arithmetic
20.1 Integers
=============
The C language defines several integer data types: integer, short
integer, long integer, and character, all in both signed and unsigned
varieties. The GNU C compiler extends the language to contain long long
integers as well.
The C integer types were intended to allow code to be portable among
machines with different inherent data sizes (word sizes), so each type
may have different ranges on different machines. The problem with this
is that a program often needs to be written for a particular range of
integers, and sometimes must be written for a particular size of
storage, regardless of what machine the program runs on.
To address this problem, the GNU C Library contains C type
definitions you can use to declare integers that meet your exact needs.
Because the GNU C Library header files are customized to a specific
machine, your program source code doesn't have to be.
These 'typedef's are in 'stdint.h'.
If you require that an integer be represented in exactly N bits, use
one of the following types, with the obvious mapping to bit size and
signedness:
* int8_t
* int16_t
* int32_t
* int64_t
* uint8_t
* uint16_t
* uint32_t
* uint64_t
If your C compiler and target machine do not allow integers of a
certain size, the corresponding above type does not exist.
If you don't need a specific storage size, but want the smallest data
structure with _at least_ N bits, use one of these:
* int_least8_t
* int_least16_t
* int_least32_t
* int_least64_t
* uint_least8_t
* uint_least16_t
* uint_least32_t
* uint_least64_t
If you don't need a specific storage size, but want the data
structure that allows the fastest access while having at least N bits
(and among data structures with the same access speed, the smallest
one), use one of these:
* int_fast8_t
* int_fast16_t
* int_fast32_t
* int_fast64_t
* uint_fast8_t
* uint_fast16_t
* uint_fast32_t
* uint_fast64_t
If you want an integer with the widest range possible on the platform
on which it is being used, use one of the following. If you use these,
you should write code that takes into account the variable size and
range of the integer.
* intmax_t
* uintmax_t
The GNU C Library also provides macros that tell you the maximum and
minimum possible values for each integer data type. The macro names
follow these examples: 'INT32_MAX', 'UINT8_MAX', 'INT_FAST32_MIN',
'INT_LEAST64_MIN', 'UINTMAX_MAX', 'INTMAX_MAX', 'INTMAX_MIN'. Note that
there are no macros for unsigned integer minima. These are always zero.
There are similar macros for use with C's built in integer types
which should come with your C compiler. These are described in *note
Data Type Measurements::.
Don't forget you can use the C 'sizeof' function with any of these
data types to get the number of bytes of storage each uses.

File: libc.info, Node: Integer Division, Next: Floating Point Numbers, Prev: Integers, Up: Arithmetic
20.2 Integer Division
=====================
This section describes functions for performing integer division. These
functions are redundant when GNU CC is used, because in GNU C the '/'
operator always rounds towards zero. But in other C implementations,
'/' may round differently with negative arguments. 'div' and 'ldiv' are
useful because they specify how to round the quotient: towards zero.
The remainder has the same sign as the numerator.
These functions are specified to return a result R such that the
value 'R.quot*DENOMINATOR + R.rem' equals NUMERATOR.
To use these facilities, you should include the header file
'stdlib.h' in your program.
-- Data Type: div_t
This is a structure type used to hold the result returned by the
'div' function. It has the following members:
'int quot'
The quotient from the division.
'int rem'
The remainder from the division.
-- Function: div_t div (int NUMERATOR, int DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function 'div' computes the quotient and remainder from the
division of NUMERATOR by DENOMINATOR, returning the result in a
structure of type 'div_t'.
If the result cannot be represented (as in a division by zero), the
behavior is undefined.
Here is an example, albeit not a very useful one.
div_t result;
result = div (20, -6);
Now 'result.quot' is '-3' and 'result.rem' is '2'.
-- Data Type: ldiv_t
This is a structure type used to hold the result returned by the
'ldiv' function. It has the following members:
'long int quot'
The quotient from the division.
'long int rem'
The remainder from the division.
(This is identical to 'div_t' except that the components are of
type 'long int' rather than 'int'.)
-- Function: ldiv_t ldiv (long int NUMERATOR, long int DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'ldiv' function is similar to 'div', except that the arguments
are of type 'long int' and the result is returned as a structure of
type 'ldiv_t'.
-- Data Type: lldiv_t
This is a structure type used to hold the result returned by the
'lldiv' function. It has the following members:
'long long int quot'
The quotient from the division.
'long long int rem'
The remainder from the division.
(This is identical to 'div_t' except that the components are of
type 'long long int' rather than 'int'.)
-- Function: lldiv_t lldiv (long long int NUMERATOR, long long int
DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'lldiv' function is like the 'div' function, but the arguments
are of type 'long long int' and the result is returned as a
structure of type 'lldiv_t'.
The 'lldiv' function was added in ISO C99.
-- Data Type: imaxdiv_t
This is a structure type used to hold the result returned by the
'imaxdiv' function. It has the following members:
'intmax_t quot'
The quotient from the division.
'intmax_t rem'
The remainder from the division.
(This is identical to 'div_t' except that the components are of
type 'intmax_t' rather than 'int'.)
See *note Integers:: for a description of the 'intmax_t' type.
-- Function: imaxdiv_t imaxdiv (intmax_t NUMERATOR, intmax_t
DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'imaxdiv' function is like the 'div' function, but the
arguments are of type 'intmax_t' and the result is returned as a
structure of type 'imaxdiv_t'.
See *note Integers:: for a description of the 'intmax_t' type.
The 'imaxdiv' function was added in ISO C99.

File: libc.info, Node: Floating Point Numbers, Next: Floating Point Classes, Prev: Integer Division, Up: Arithmetic
20.3 Floating Point Numbers
===========================
Most computer hardware has support for two different kinds of numbers:
integers (...-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3...) and floating-point numbers.
Floating-point numbers have three parts: the "mantissa", the "exponent",
and the "sign bit". The real number represented by a floating-point
value is given by (s ? -1 : 1) * 2^e * M where s is the sign bit, e the
exponent, and M the mantissa. *Note Floating Point Concepts::, for
details. (It is possible to have a different "base" for the exponent,
but all modern hardware uses 2.)
Floating-point numbers can represent a finite subset of the real
numbers. While this subset is large enough for most purposes, it is
important to remember that the only reals that can be represented
exactly are rational numbers that have a terminating binary expansion
shorter than the width of the mantissa. Even simple fractions such as
1/5 can only be approximated by floating point.
Mathematical operations and functions frequently need to produce
values that are not representable. Often these values can be
approximated closely enough for practical purposes, but sometimes they
can't. Historically there was no way to tell when the results of a
calculation were inaccurate. Modern computers implement the IEEE 754
standard for numerical computations, which defines a framework for
indicating to the program when the results of calculation are not
trustworthy. This framework consists of a set of "exceptions" that
indicate why a result could not be represented, and the special values
"infinity" and "not a number" (NaN).

File: libc.info, Node: Floating Point Classes, Next: Floating Point Errors, Prev: Floating Point Numbers, Up: Arithmetic
20.4 Floating-Point Number Classification Functions
===================================================
ISO C99 defines macros that let you determine what sort of
floating-point number a variable holds.
-- Macro: int fpclassify (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This is a generic macro which works on all floating-point types and
which returns a value of type 'int'. The possible values are:
'FP_NAN'
The floating-point number X is "Not a Number" (*note Infinity
and NaN::)
'FP_INFINITE'
The value of X is either plus or minus infinity (*note
Infinity and NaN::)
'FP_ZERO'
The value of X is zero. In floating-point formats like
IEEE 754, where zero can be signed, this value is also
returned if X is negative zero.
'FP_SUBNORMAL'
Numbers whose absolute value is too small to be represented in
the normal format are represented in an alternate,
"denormalized" format (*note Floating Point Concepts::). This
format is less precise but can represent values closer to
zero. 'fpclassify' returns this value for values of X in this
alternate format.
'FP_NORMAL'
This value is returned for all other values of X. It
indicates that there is nothing special about the number.
'fpclassify' is most useful if more than one property of a number
must be tested. There are more specific macros which only test one
property at a time. Generally these macros execute faster than
'fpclassify', since there is special hardware support for them. You
should therefore use the specific macros whenever possible.
-- Macro: int isfinite (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro returns a nonzero value if X is finite: not plus or
minus infinity, and not NaN. It is equivalent to
(fpclassify (x) != FP_NAN && fpclassify (x) != FP_INFINITE)
'isfinite' is implemented as a macro which accepts any
floating-point type.
-- Macro: int isnormal (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro returns a nonzero value if X is finite and normalized.
It is equivalent to
(fpclassify (x) == FP_NORMAL)
-- Macro: int isnan (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro returns a nonzero value if X is NaN. It is equivalent to
(fpclassify (x) == FP_NAN)
-- Macro: int issignaling (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro returns a nonzero value if X is a signaling NaN (sNaN).
It is based on draft TS 18661 and currently enabled as a GNU
extension.
Another set of floating-point classification functions was provided
by BSD. The GNU C Library also supports these functions; however, we
recommend that you use the ISO C99 macros in new code. Those are
standard and will be available more widely. Also, since they are
macros, you do not have to worry about the type of their argument.
-- Function: int isinf (double X)
-- Function: int isinff (float X)
-- Function: int isinfl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function returns '-1' if X represents negative infinity, '1'
if X represents positive infinity, and '0' otherwise.
-- Function: int isnan (double X)
-- Function: int isnanf (float X)
-- Function: int isnanl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function returns a nonzero value if X is a "not a number"
value, and zero otherwise.
*NB:* The 'isnan' macro defined by ISO C99 overrides the BSD
function. This is normally not a problem, because the two routines
behave identically. However, if you really need to get the BSD
function for some reason, you can write
(isnan) (x)
-- Function: int finite (double X)
-- Function: int finitef (float X)
-- Function: int finitel (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function returns a nonzero value if X is finite or a "not a
number" value, and zero otherwise.
*Portability Note:* The functions listed in this section are BSD
extensions.

File: libc.info, Node: Floating Point Errors, Next: Rounding, Prev: Floating Point Classes, Up: Arithmetic
20.5 Errors in Floating-Point Calculations
==========================================
* Menu:
* FP Exceptions:: IEEE 754 math exceptions and how to detect them.
* Infinity and NaN:: Special values returned by calculations.
* Status bit operations:: Checking for exceptions after the fact.
* Math Error Reporting:: How the math functions report errors.

File: libc.info, Node: FP Exceptions, Next: Infinity and NaN, Up: Floating Point Errors
20.5.1 FP Exceptions
--------------------
The IEEE 754 standard defines five "exceptions" that can occur during a
calculation. Each corresponds to a particular sort of error, such as
overflow.
When exceptions occur (when exceptions are "raised", in the language
of the standard), one of two things can happen. By default the
exception is simply noted in the floating-point "status word", and the
program continues as if nothing had happened. The operation produces a
default value, which depends on the exception (see the table below).
Your program can check the status word to find out which exceptions
happened.
Alternatively, you can enable "traps" for exceptions. In that case,
when an exception is raised, your program will receive the 'SIGFPE'
signal. The default action for this signal is to terminate the program.
*Note Signal Handling::, for how you can change the effect of the
signal.
In the System V math library, the user-defined function 'matherr' is
called when certain exceptions occur inside math library functions.
However, the Unix98 standard deprecates this interface. We support it
for historical compatibility, but recommend that you do not use it in
new programs. When this interface is used, exceptions may not be
raised.
The exceptions defined in IEEE 754 are:
'Invalid Operation'
This exception is raised if the given operands are invalid for the
operation to be performed. Examples are (see IEEE 754, section 7):
1. Addition or subtraction: oo - oo. (But oo + oo = oo).
2. Multiplication: 0 * oo.
3. Division: 0/0 or oo/oo.
4. Remainder: x REM y, where y is zero or x is infinite.
5. Square root if the operand is less then zero. More generally,
any mathematical function evaluated outside its domain
produces this exception.
6. Conversion of a floating-point number to an integer or decimal
string, when the number cannot be represented in the target
format (due to overflow, infinity, or NaN).
7. Conversion of an unrecognizable input string.
8. Comparison via predicates involving < or >, when one or other
of the operands is NaN. You can prevent this exception by
using the unordered comparison functions instead; see *note FP
Comparison Functions::.
If the exception does not trap, the result of the operation is NaN.
'Division by Zero'
This exception is raised when a finite nonzero number is divided by
zero. If no trap occurs the result is either +oo or -oo, depending
on the signs of the operands.
'Overflow'
This exception is raised whenever the result cannot be represented
as a finite value in the precision format of the destination. If
no trap occurs the result depends on the sign of the intermediate
result and the current rounding mode (IEEE 754, section 7.3):
1. Round to nearest carries all overflows to oo with the sign of
the intermediate result.
2. Round toward 0 carries all overflows to the largest
representable finite number with the sign of the intermediate
result.
3. Round toward -oo carries positive overflows to the largest
representable finite number and negative overflows to -oo.
4. Round toward oo carries negative overflows to the most
negative representable finite number and positive overflows to
oo.
Whenever the overflow exception is raised, the inexact exception is
also raised.
'Underflow'
The underflow exception is raised when an intermediate result is
too small to be calculated accurately, or if the operation's result
rounded to the destination precision is too small to be normalized.
When no trap is installed for the underflow exception, underflow is
signaled (via the underflow flag) only when both tininess and loss
of accuracy have been detected. If no trap handler is installed
the operation continues with an imprecise small value, or zero if
the destination precision cannot hold the small exact result.
'Inexact'
This exception is signalled if a rounded result is not exact (such
as when calculating the square root of two) or a result overflows
without an overflow trap.

File: libc.info, Node: Infinity and NaN, Next: Status bit operations, Prev: FP Exceptions, Up: Floating Point Errors
20.5.2 Infinity and NaN
-----------------------
IEEE 754 floating point numbers can represent positive or negative
infinity, and "NaN" (not a number). These three values arise from
calculations whose result is undefined or cannot be represented
accurately. You can also deliberately set a floating-point variable to
any of them, which is sometimes useful. Some examples of calculations
that produce infinity or NaN:
1/0 = oo
log (0) = -oo
sqrt (-1) = NaN
When a calculation produces any of these values, an exception also
occurs; see *note FP Exceptions::.
The basic operations and math functions all accept infinity and NaN
and produce sensible output. Infinities propagate through calculations
as one would expect: for example, 2 + oo = oo, 4/oo = 0, atan (oo) =
pi/2. NaN, on the other hand, infects any calculation that involves it.
Unless the calculation would produce the same result no matter what real
value replaced NaN, the result is NaN.
In comparison operations, positive infinity is larger than all values
except itself and NaN, and negative infinity is smaller than all values
except itself and NaN. NaN is "unordered": it is not equal to, greater
than, or less than anything, _including itself_. 'x == x' is false if
the value of 'x' is NaN. You can use this to test whether a value is NaN
or not, but the recommended way to test for NaN is with the 'isnan'
function (*note Floating Point Classes::). In addition, '<', '>', '<=',
and '>=' will raise an exception when applied to NaNs.
'math.h' defines macros that allow you to explicitly set a variable
to infinity or NaN.
-- Macro: float INFINITY
An expression representing positive infinity. It is equal to the
value produced by mathematical operations like '1.0 / 0.0'.
'-INFINITY' represents negative infinity.
You can test whether a floating-point value is infinite by
comparing it to this macro. However, this is not recommended; you
should use the 'isfinite' macro instead. *Note Floating Point
Classes::.
This macro was introduced in the ISO C99 standard.
-- Macro: float NAN
An expression representing a value which is "not a number". This
macro is a GNU extension, available only on machines that support
the "not a number" value--that is to say, on all machines that
support IEEE floating point.
You can use '#ifdef NAN' to test whether the machine supports NaN.
(Of course, you must arrange for GNU extensions to be visible, such
as by defining '_GNU_SOURCE', and then you must include 'math.h'.)
IEEE 754 also allows for another unusual value: negative zero. This
value is produced when you divide a positive number by negative
infinity, or when a negative result is smaller than the limits of
representation.

File: libc.info, Node: Status bit operations, Next: Math Error Reporting, Prev: Infinity and NaN, Up: Floating Point Errors
20.5.3 Examining the FPU status word
------------------------------------
ISO C99 defines functions to query and manipulate the floating-point
status word. You can use these functions to check for untrapped
exceptions when it's convenient, rather than worrying about them in the
middle of a calculation.
These constants represent the various IEEE 754 exceptions. Not all
FPUs report all the different exceptions. Each constant is defined if
and only if the FPU you are compiling for supports that exception, so
you can test for FPU support with '#ifdef'. They are defined in
'fenv.h'.
'FE_INEXACT'
The inexact exception.
'FE_DIVBYZERO'
The divide by zero exception.
'FE_UNDERFLOW'
The underflow exception.
'FE_OVERFLOW'
The overflow exception.
'FE_INVALID'
The invalid exception.
The macro 'FE_ALL_EXCEPT' is the bitwise OR of all exception macros
which are supported by the FP implementation.
These functions allow you to clear exception flags, test for
exceptions, and save and restore the set of exceptions flagged.
-- Function: int feclearexcept (int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe !posix | AC-Safe !posix | *Note
POSIX Safety Concepts::.
This function clears all of the supported exception flags indicated
by EXCEPTS.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
-- Function: int feraiseexcept (int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function raises the supported exceptions indicated by EXCEPTS.
If more than one exception bit in EXCEPTS is set the order in which
the exceptions are raised is undefined except that overflow
('FE_OVERFLOW') or underflow ('FE_UNDERFLOW') are raised before
inexact ('FE_INEXACT'). Whether for overflow or underflow the
inexact exception is also raised is also implementation dependent.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
-- Function: int fetestexcept (int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Test whether the exception flags indicated by the parameter EXCEPT
are currently set. If any of them are, a nonzero value is returned
which specifies which exceptions are set. Otherwise the result is
zero.
To understand these functions, imagine that the status word is an
integer variable named STATUS. 'feclearexcept' is then equivalent to
'status &= ~excepts' and 'fetestexcept' is equivalent to '(status &
excepts)'. The actual implementation may be very different, of course.
Exception flags are only cleared when the program explicitly requests
it, by calling 'feclearexcept'. If you want to check for exceptions
from a set of calculations, you should clear all the flags first. Here
is a simple example of the way to use 'fetestexcept':
{
double f;
int raised;
feclearexcept (FE_ALL_EXCEPT);
f = compute ();
raised = fetestexcept (FE_OVERFLOW | FE_INVALID);
if (raised & FE_OVERFLOW) { /* ... */ }
if (raised & FE_INVALID) { /* ... */ }
/* ... */
}
You cannot explicitly set bits in the status word. You can, however,
save the entire status word and restore it later. This is done with the
following functions:
-- Function: int fegetexceptflag (fexcept_t *FLAGP, int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function stores in the variable pointed to by FLAGP an
implementation-defined value representing the current setting of
the exception flags indicated by EXCEPTS.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
-- Function: int fesetexceptflag (const fexcept_t *FLAGP, int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function restores the flags for the exceptions indicated by
EXCEPTS to the values stored in the variable pointed to by FLAGP.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
Note that the value stored in 'fexcept_t' bears no resemblance to the
bit mask returned by 'fetestexcept'. The type may not even be an
integer. Do not attempt to modify an 'fexcept_t' variable.

File: libc.info, Node: Math Error Reporting, Prev: Status bit operations, Up: Floating Point Errors
20.5.4 Error Reporting by Mathematical Functions
------------------------------------------------
Many of the math functions are defined only over a subset of the real or
complex numbers. Even if they are mathematically defined, their result
may be larger or smaller than the range representable by their return
type without loss of accuracy. These are known as "domain errors",
"overflows", and "underflows", respectively. Math functions do several
things when one of these errors occurs. In this manual we will refer to
the complete response as "signalling" a domain error, overflow, or
underflow.
When a math function suffers a domain error, it raises the invalid
exception and returns NaN. It also sets ERRNO to 'EDOM'; this is for
compatibility with old systems that do not support IEEE 754 exception
handling. Likewise, when overflow occurs, math functions raise the
overflow exception and, in the default rounding mode, return oo or -oo
as appropriate (in other rounding modes, the largest finite value of the
appropriate sign is returned when appropriate for that rounding mode).
They also set ERRNO to 'ERANGE' if returning oo or -oo; ERRNO may or may
not be set to 'ERANGE' when a finite value is returned on overflow.
When underflow occurs, the underflow exception is raised, and zero
(appropriately signed) or a subnormal value, as appropriate for the
mathematical result of the function and the rounding mode, is returned.
ERRNO may be set to 'ERANGE', but this is not guaranteed; it is intended
that the GNU C Library should set it when the underflow is to an
appropriately signed zero, but not necessarily for other underflows.
Some of the math functions are defined mathematically to result in a
complex value over parts of their domains. The most familiar example of
this is taking the square root of a negative number. The complex math
functions, such as 'csqrt', will return the appropriate complex value in
this case. The real-valued functions, such as 'sqrt', will signal a
domain error.
Some older hardware does not support infinities. On that hardware,
overflows instead return a particular very large number (usually the
largest representable number). 'math.h' defines macros you can use to
test for overflow on both old and new hardware.
-- Macro: double HUGE_VAL
-- Macro: float HUGE_VALF
-- Macro: long double HUGE_VALL
An expression representing a particular very large number. On
machines that use IEEE 754 floating point format, 'HUGE_VAL' is
infinity. On other machines, it's typically the largest positive
number that can be represented.
Mathematical functions return the appropriately typed version of
'HUGE_VAL' or '-HUGE_VAL' when the result is too large to be
represented.

File: libc.info, Node: Rounding, Next: Control Functions, Prev: Floating Point Errors, Up: Arithmetic
20.6 Rounding Modes
===================
Floating-point calculations are carried out internally with extra
precision, and then rounded to fit into the destination type. This
ensures that results are as precise as the input data. IEEE 754 defines
four possible rounding modes:
Round to nearest.
This is the default mode. It should be used unless there is a
specific need for one of the others. In this mode results are
rounded to the nearest representable value. If the result is
midway between two representable values, the even representable is
chosen. "Even" here means the lowest-order bit is zero. This
rounding mode prevents statistical bias and guarantees numeric
stability: round-off errors in a lengthy calculation will remain
smaller than half of 'FLT_EPSILON'.
Round toward plus Infinity.
All results are rounded to the smallest representable value which
is greater than the result.
Round toward minus Infinity.
All results are rounded to the largest representable value which is
less than the result.
Round toward zero.
All results are rounded to the largest representable value whose
magnitude is less than that of the result. In other words, if the
result is negative it is rounded up; if it is positive, it is
rounded down.
'fenv.h' defines constants which you can use to refer to the various
rounding modes. Each one will be defined if and only if the FPU
supports the corresponding rounding mode.
'FE_TONEAREST'
Round to nearest.
'FE_UPWARD'
Round toward +oo.
'FE_DOWNWARD'
Round toward -oo.
'FE_TOWARDZERO'
Round toward zero.
Underflow is an unusual case. Normally, IEEE 754 floating point
numbers are always normalized (*note Floating Point Concepts::).
Numbers smaller than 2^r (where r is the minimum exponent,
'FLT_MIN_RADIX-1' for FLOAT) cannot be represented as normalized
numbers. Rounding all such numbers to zero or 2^r would cause some
algorithms to fail at 0. Therefore, they are left in denormalized form.
That produces loss of precision, since some bits of the mantissa are
stolen to indicate the decimal point.
If a result is too small to be represented as a denormalized number,
it is rounded to zero. However, the sign of the result is preserved; if
the calculation was negative, the result is "negative zero". Negative
zero can also result from some operations on infinity, such as 4/-oo.
At any time one of the above four rounding modes is selected. You
can find out which one with this function:
-- Function: int fegetround (void)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Returns the currently selected rounding mode, represented by one of
the values of the defined rounding mode macros.
To change the rounding mode, use this function:
-- Function: int fesetround (int ROUND)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Changes the currently selected rounding mode to ROUND. If ROUND
does not correspond to one of the supported rounding modes nothing
is changed. 'fesetround' returns zero if it changed the rounding
mode, a nonzero value if the mode is not supported.
You should avoid changing the rounding mode if possible. It can be
an expensive operation; also, some hardware requires you to compile your
program differently for it to work. The resulting code may run slower.
See your compiler documentation for details.

File: libc.info, Node: Control Functions, Next: Arithmetic Functions, Prev: Rounding, Up: Arithmetic
20.7 Floating-Point Control Functions
=====================================
IEEE 754 floating-point implementations allow the programmer to decide
whether traps will occur for each of the exceptions, by setting bits in
the "control word". In C, traps result in the program receiving the
'SIGFPE' signal; see *note Signal Handling::.
*NB:* IEEE 754 says that trap handlers are given details of the
exceptional situation, and can set the result value. C signals do not
provide any mechanism to pass this information back and forth. Trapping
exceptions in C is therefore not very useful.
It is sometimes necessary to save the state of the floating-point
unit while you perform some calculation. The library provides functions
which save and restore the exception flags, the set of exceptions that
generate traps, and the rounding mode. This information is known as the
"floating-point environment".
The functions to save and restore the floating-point environment all
use a variable of type 'fenv_t' to store information. This type is
defined in 'fenv.h'. Its size and contents are implementation-defined.
You should not attempt to manipulate a variable of this type directly.
To save the state of the FPU, use one of these functions:
-- Function: int fegetenv (fenv_t *ENVP)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Store the floating-point environment in the variable pointed to by
ENVP.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
-- Function: int feholdexcept (fenv_t *ENVP)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Store the current floating-point environment in the object pointed
to by ENVP. Then clear all exception flags, and set the FPU to
trap no exceptions. Not all FPUs support trapping no exceptions;
if 'feholdexcept' cannot set this mode, it returns nonzero value.
If it succeeds, it returns zero.
The functions which restore the floating-point environment can take
these kinds of arguments:
* Pointers to 'fenv_t' objects, which were initialized previously by
a call to 'fegetenv' or 'feholdexcept'.
* The special macro 'FE_DFL_ENV' which represents the floating-point
environment as it was available at program start.
* Implementation defined macros with names starting with 'FE_' and
having type 'fenv_t *'.
If possible, the GNU C Library defines a macro 'FE_NOMASK_ENV'
which represents an environment where every exception raised causes
a trap to occur. You can test for this macro using '#ifdef'. It
is only defined if '_GNU_SOURCE' is defined.
Some platforms might define other predefined environments.
To set the floating-point environment, you can use either of these
functions:
-- Function: int fesetenv (const fenv_t *ENVP)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Set the floating-point environment to that described by ENVP.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
-- Function: int feupdateenv (const fenv_t *ENVP)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
Like 'fesetenv', this function sets the floating-point environment
to that described by ENVP. However, if any exceptions were flagged
in the status word before 'feupdateenv' was called, they remain
flagged after the call. In other words, after 'feupdateenv' is
called, the status word is the bitwise OR of the previous status
word and the one saved in ENVP.
The function returns zero in case the operation was successful, a
non-zero value otherwise.
To control for individual exceptions if raising them causes a trap to
occur, you can use the following two functions.
*Portability Note:* These functions are all GNU extensions.
-- Function: int feenableexcept (int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This functions enables traps for each of the exceptions as
indicated by the parameter EXCEPT. The individual exceptions are
described in *note Status bit operations::. Only the specified
exceptions are enabled, the status of the other exceptions is not
changed.
The function returns the previous enabled exceptions in case the
operation was successful, '-1' otherwise.
-- Function: int fedisableexcept (int EXCEPTS)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This functions disables traps for each of the exceptions as
indicated by the parameter EXCEPT. The individual exceptions are
described in *note Status bit operations::. Only the specified
exceptions are disabled, the status of the other exceptions is not
changed.
The function returns the previous enabled exceptions in case the
operation was successful, '-1' otherwise.
-- Function: int fegetexcept (void)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The function returns a bitmask of all currently enabled exceptions.
It returns '-1' in case of failure.

File: libc.info, Node: Arithmetic Functions, Next: Complex Numbers, Prev: Control Functions, Up: Arithmetic
20.8 Arithmetic Functions
=========================
The C library provides functions to do basic operations on
floating-point numbers. These include absolute value, maximum and
minimum, normalization, bit twiddling, rounding, and a few others.
* Menu:
* Absolute Value:: Absolute values of integers and floats.
* Normalization Functions:: Extracting exponents and putting them back.
* Rounding Functions:: Rounding floats to integers.
* Remainder Functions:: Remainders on division, precisely defined.
* FP Bit Twiddling:: Sign bit adjustment. Adding epsilon.
* FP Comparison Functions:: Comparisons without risk of exceptions.
* Misc FP Arithmetic:: Max, min, positive difference, multiply-add.

File: libc.info, Node: Absolute Value, Next: Normalization Functions, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.1 Absolute Value
---------------------
These functions are provided for obtaining the "absolute value" (or
"magnitude") of a number. The absolute value of a real number X is X if
X is positive, -X if X is negative. For a complex number Z, whose real
part is X and whose imaginary part is Y, the absolute value is
'sqrt (X*X + Y*Y)'.
Prototypes for 'abs', 'labs' and 'llabs' are in 'stdlib.h'; 'imaxabs'
is declared in 'inttypes.h'; 'fabs', 'fabsf' and 'fabsl' are declared in
'math.h'. 'cabs', 'cabsf' and 'cabsl' are declared in 'complex.h'.
-- Function: int abs (int NUMBER)
-- Function: long int labs (long int NUMBER)
-- Function: long long int llabs (long long int NUMBER)
-- Function: intmax_t imaxabs (intmax_t NUMBER)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the absolute value of NUMBER.
Most computers use a two's complement integer representation, in
which the absolute value of 'INT_MIN' (the smallest possible 'int')
cannot be represented; thus, 'abs (INT_MIN)' is not defined.
'llabs' and 'imaxdiv' are new to ISO C99.
See *note Integers:: for a description of the 'intmax_t' type.
-- Function: double fabs (double NUMBER)
-- Function: float fabsf (float NUMBER)
-- Function: long double fabsl (long double NUMBER)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function returns the absolute value of the floating-point
number NUMBER.
-- Function: double cabs (complex double Z)
-- Function: float cabsf (complex float Z)
-- Function: long double cabsl (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the absolute value of the complex number Z
(*note Complex Numbers::). The absolute value of a complex number
is:
sqrt (creal (Z) * creal (Z) + cimag (Z) * cimag (Z))
This function should always be used instead of the direct formula
because it takes special care to avoid losing precision. It may
also take advantage of hardware support for this operation. See
'hypot' in *note Exponents and Logarithms::.

File: libc.info, Node: Normalization Functions, Next: Rounding Functions, Prev: Absolute Value, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.2 Normalization Functions
------------------------------
The functions described in this section are primarily provided as a way
to efficiently perform certain low-level manipulations on floating point
numbers that are represented internally using a binary radix; see *note
Floating Point Concepts::. These functions are required to have
equivalent behavior even if the representation does not use a radix of
2, but of course they are unlikely to be particularly efficient in those
cases.
All these functions are declared in 'math.h'.
-- Function: double frexp (double VALUE, int *EXPONENT)
-- Function: float frexpf (float VALUE, int *EXPONENT)
-- Function: long double frexpl (long double VALUE, int *EXPONENT)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are used to split the number VALUE into a
normalized fraction and an exponent.
If the argument VALUE is not zero, the return value is VALUE times
a power of two, and its magnitude is always in the range 1/2
(inclusive) to 1 (exclusive). The corresponding exponent is stored
in '*EXPONENT'; the return value multiplied by 2 raised to this
exponent equals the original number VALUE.
For example, 'frexp (12.8, &exponent)' returns '0.8' and stores '4'
in 'exponent'.
If VALUE is zero, then the return value is zero and zero is stored
in '*EXPONENT'.
-- Function: double ldexp (double VALUE, int EXPONENT)
-- Function: float ldexpf (float VALUE, int EXPONENT)
-- Function: long double ldexpl (long double VALUE, int EXPONENT)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the result of multiplying the floating-point
number VALUE by 2 raised to the power EXPONENT. (It can be used to
reassemble floating-point numbers that were taken apart by
'frexp'.)
For example, 'ldexp (0.8, 4)' returns '12.8'.
The following functions, which come from BSD, provide facilities
equivalent to those of 'ldexp' and 'frexp'. See also the ISO C function
'logb' which originally also appeared in BSD.
-- Function: double scalb (double VALUE, double EXPONENT)
-- Function: float scalbf (float VALUE, float EXPONENT)
-- Function: long double scalbl (long double VALUE, long double
EXPONENT)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'scalb' function is the BSD name for 'ldexp'.
-- Function: double scalbn (double X, int N)
-- Function: float scalbnf (float X, int N)
-- Function: long double scalbnl (long double X, int N)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
'scalbn' is identical to 'scalb', except that the exponent N is an
'int' instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: double scalbln (double X, long int N)
-- Function: float scalblnf (float X, long int N)
-- Function: long double scalblnl (long double X, long int N)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
'scalbln' is identical to 'scalb', except that the exponent N is a
'long int' instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: double significand (double X)
-- Function: float significandf (float X)
-- Function: long double significandl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
'significand' returns the mantissa of X scaled to the range [1, 2).
It is equivalent to 'scalb (X, (double) -ilogb (X))'.
This function exists mainly for use in certain standardized tests
of IEEE 754 conformance.

File: libc.info, Node: Rounding Functions, Next: Remainder Functions, Prev: Normalization Functions, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.3 Rounding Functions
-------------------------
The functions listed here perform operations such as rounding and
truncation of floating-point values. Some of these functions convert
floating point numbers to integer values. They are all declared in
'math.h'.
You can also convert floating-point numbers to integers simply by
casting them to 'int'. This discards the fractional part, effectively
rounding towards zero. However, this only works if the result can
actually be represented as an 'int'--for very large numbers, this is
impossible. The functions listed here return the result as a 'double'
instead to get around this problem.
-- Function: double ceil (double X)
-- Function: float ceilf (float X)
-- Function: long double ceill (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions round X upwards to the nearest integer, returning
that value as a 'double'. Thus, 'ceil (1.5)' is '2.0'.
-- Function: double floor (double X)
-- Function: float floorf (float X)
-- Function: long double floorl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions round X downwards to the nearest integer, returning
that value as a 'double'. Thus, 'floor (1.5)' is '1.0' and 'floor
(-1.5)' is '-2.0'.
-- Function: double trunc (double X)
-- Function: float truncf (float X)
-- Function: long double truncl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'trunc' functions round X towards zero to the nearest integer
(returned in floating-point format). Thus, 'trunc (1.5)' is '1.0'
and 'trunc (-1.5)' is '-1.0'.
-- Function: double rint (double X)
-- Function: float rintf (float X)
-- Function: long double rintl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions round X to an integer value according to the
current rounding mode. *Note Floating Point Parameters::, for
information about the various rounding modes. The default rounding
mode is to round to the nearest integer; some machines support
other modes, but round-to-nearest is always used unless you
explicitly select another.
If X was not initially an integer, these functions raise the
inexact exception.
-- Function: double nearbyint (double X)
-- Function: float nearbyintf (float X)
-- Function: long double nearbyintl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the same value as the 'rint' functions, but
do not raise the inexact exception if X is not an integer.
-- Function: double round (double X)
-- Function: float roundf (float X)
-- Function: long double roundl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are similar to 'rint', but they round halfway cases
away from zero instead of to the nearest integer (or other current
rounding mode).
-- Function: long int lrint (double X)
-- Function: long int lrintf (float X)
-- Function: long int lrintl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are just like 'rint', but they return a 'long int'
instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: long long int llrint (double X)
-- Function: long long int llrintf (float X)
-- Function: long long int llrintl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are just like 'rint', but they return a 'long long
int' instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: long int lround (double X)
-- Function: long int lroundf (float X)
-- Function: long int lroundl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are just like 'round', but they return a 'long int'
instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: long long int llround (double X)
-- Function: long long int llroundf (float X)
-- Function: long long int llroundl (long double X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are just like 'round', but they return a 'long long
int' instead of a floating-point number.
-- Function: double modf (double VALUE, double *INTEGER-PART)
-- Function: float modff (float VALUE, float *INTEGER-PART)
-- Function: long double modfl (long double VALUE, long double
*INTEGER-PART)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions break the argument VALUE into an integer part and a
fractional part (between '-1' and '1', exclusive). Their sum
equals VALUE. Each of the parts has the same sign as VALUE, and
the integer part is always rounded toward zero.
'modf' stores the integer part in '*INTEGER-PART', and returns the
fractional part. For example, 'modf (2.5, &intpart)' returns '0.5'
and stores '2.0' into 'intpart'.

File: libc.info, Node: Remainder Functions, Next: FP Bit Twiddling, Prev: Rounding Functions, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.4 Remainder Functions
--------------------------
The functions in this section compute the remainder on division of two
floating-point numbers. Each is a little different; pick the one that
suits your problem.
-- Function: double fmod (double NUMERATOR, double DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: float fmodf (float NUMERATOR, float DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: long double fmodl (long double NUMERATOR, long double
DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions compute the remainder from the division of
NUMERATOR by DENOMINATOR. Specifically, the return value is
'NUMERATOR - N * DENOMINATOR', where N is the quotient of NUMERATOR
divided by DENOMINATOR, rounded towards zero to an integer. Thus, 'fmod (6.5, 2.3)'
returns '1.9', which is '6.5' minus '4.6'.
The result has the same sign as the NUMERATOR and has magnitude
less than the magnitude of the DENOMINATOR.
If DENOMINATOR is zero, 'fmod' signals a domain error.
-- Function: double drem (double NUMERATOR, double DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: float dremf (float NUMERATOR, float DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: long double dreml (long double NUMERATOR, long double
DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are like 'fmod' except that they round the internal
quotient N to the nearest integer instead of towards zero to an
integer. For example, 'drem (6.5, 2.3)' returns '-0.4', which is
'6.5' minus '6.9'.
The absolute value of the result is less than or equal to half the
absolute value of the DENOMINATOR. The difference between 'fmod
(NUMERATOR, DENOMINATOR)' and 'drem (NUMERATOR, DENOMINATOR)' is
always either DENOMINATOR, minus DENOMINATOR, or zero.
If DENOMINATOR is zero, 'drem' signals a domain error.
-- Function: double remainder (double NUMERATOR, double DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: float remainderf (float NUMERATOR, float DENOMINATOR)
-- Function: long double remainderl (long double NUMERATOR, long double
DENOMINATOR)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This function is another name for 'drem'.

File: libc.info, Node: FP Bit Twiddling, Next: FP Comparison Functions, Prev: Remainder Functions, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.5 Setting and modifying single bits of FP values
-----------------------------------------------------
There are some operations that are too complicated or expensive to
perform by hand on floating-point numbers. ISO C99 defines functions to
do these operations, which mostly involve changing single bits.
-- Function: double copysign (double X, double Y)
-- Function: float copysignf (float X, float Y)
-- Function: long double copysignl (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return X but with the sign of Y. They work even if
X or Y are NaN or zero. Both of these can carry a sign (although
not all implementations support it) and this is one of the few
operations that can tell the difference.
'copysign' never raises an exception.
This function is defined in IEC 559 (and the appendix with
recommended functions in IEEE 754/IEEE 854).
-- Function: int signbit (_float-type_ X)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
'signbit' is a generic macro which can work on all floating-point
types. It returns a nonzero value if the value of X has its sign
bit set.
This is not the same as 'x < 0.0', because IEEE 754 floating point
allows zero to be signed. The comparison '-0.0 < 0.0' is false,
but 'signbit (-0.0)' will return a nonzero value.
-- Function: double nextafter (double X, double Y)
-- Function: float nextafterf (float X, float Y)
-- Function: long double nextafterl (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'nextafter' function returns the next representable neighbor of
X in the direction towards Y. The size of the step between X and
the result depends on the type of the result. If X = Y the
function simply returns Y. If either value is 'NaN', 'NaN' is
returned. Otherwise a value corresponding to the value of the
least significant bit in the mantissa is added or subtracted,
depending on the direction. 'nextafter' will signal overflow or
underflow if the result goes outside of the range of normalized
numbers.
This function is defined in IEC 559 (and the appendix with
recommended functions in IEEE 754/IEEE 854).
-- Function: double nexttoward (double X, long double Y)
-- Function: float nexttowardf (float X, long double Y)
-- Function: long double nexttowardl (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions are identical to the corresponding versions of
'nextafter' except that their second argument is a 'long double'.
-- Function: double nan (const char *TAGP)
-- Function: float nanf (const char *TAGP)
-- Function: long double nanl (const char *TAGP)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'nan' function returns a representation of NaN, provided that
NaN is supported by the target platform. 'nan ("N-CHAR-SEQUENCE")'
is equivalent to 'strtod ("NAN(N-CHAR-SEQUENCE)")'.
The argument TAGP is used in an unspecified manner. On IEEE 754
systems, there are many representations of NaN, and TAGP selects
one. On other systems it may do nothing.

File: libc.info, Node: FP Comparison Functions, Next: Misc FP Arithmetic, Prev: FP Bit Twiddling, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.6 Floating-Point Comparison Functions
------------------------------------------
The standard C comparison operators provoke exceptions when one or other
of the operands is NaN. For example,
int v = a < 1.0;
will raise an exception if A is NaN. (This does _not_ happen with '=='
and '!='; those merely return false and true, respectively, when NaN is
examined.) Frequently this exception is undesirable. ISO C99 therefore
defines comparison functions that do not raise exceptions when NaN is
examined. All of the functions are implemented as macros which allow
their arguments to be of any floating-point type. The macros are
guaranteed to evaluate their arguments only once.
-- Macro: int isgreater (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether the argument X is greater than Y. It
is equivalent to '(X) > (Y)', but no exception is raised if X or Y
are NaN.
-- Macro: int isgreaterequal (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether the argument X is greater than or
equal to Y. It is equivalent to '(X) >= (Y)', but no exception is
raised if X or Y are NaN.
-- Macro: int isless (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether the argument X is less than Y. It is
equivalent to '(X) < (Y)', but no exception is raised if X or Y are
NaN.
-- Macro: int islessequal (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether the argument X is less than or equal
to Y. It is equivalent to '(X) <= (Y)', but no exception is raised
if X or Y are NaN.
-- Macro: int islessgreater (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether the argument X is less or greater
than Y. It is equivalent to '(X) < (Y) || (X) > (Y)' (although it
only evaluates X and Y once), but no exception is raised if X or Y
are NaN.
This macro is not equivalent to 'X != Y', because that expression
is true if X or Y are NaN.
-- Macro: int isunordered (_real-floating_ X, _real-floating_ Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
This macro determines whether its arguments are unordered. In
other words, it is true if X or Y are NaN, and false otherwise.
Not all machines provide hardware support for these operations. On
machines that don't, the macros can be very slow. Therefore, you should
not use these functions when NaN is not a concern.
*NB:* There are no macros 'isequal' or 'isunequal'. They are
unnecessary, because the '==' and '!=' operators do _not_ throw an
exception if one or both of the operands are NaN.

File: libc.info, Node: Misc FP Arithmetic, Prev: FP Comparison Functions, Up: Arithmetic Functions
20.8.7 Miscellaneous FP arithmetic functions
--------------------------------------------
The functions in this section perform miscellaneous but common
operations that are awkward to express with C operators. On some
processors these functions can use special machine instructions to
perform these operations faster than the equivalent C code.
-- Function: double fmin (double X, double Y)
-- Function: float fminf (float X, float Y)
-- Function: long double fminl (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'fmin' function returns the lesser of the two values X and Y.
It is similar to the expression
((x) < (y) ? (x) : (y))
except that X and Y are only evaluated once.
If an argument is NaN, the other argument is returned. If both
arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.
-- Function: double fmax (double X, double Y)
-- Function: float fmaxf (float X, float Y)
-- Function: long double fmaxl (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'fmax' function returns the greater of the two values X and Y.
If an argument is NaN, the other argument is returned. If both
arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.
-- Function: double fdim (double X, double Y)
-- Function: float fdimf (float X, float Y)
-- Function: long double fdiml (long double X, long double Y)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'fdim' function returns the positive difference between X and
Y. The positive difference is X - Y if X is greater than Y, and 0
otherwise.
If X, Y, or both are NaN, NaN is returned.
-- Function: double fma (double X, double Y, double Z)
-- Function: float fmaf (float X, float Y, float Z)
-- Function: long double fmal (long double X, long double Y, long
double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
The 'fma' function performs floating-point multiply-add. This is
the operation (X * Y) + Z, but the intermediate result is not
rounded to the destination type. This can sometimes improve the
precision of a calculation.
This function was introduced because some processors have a special
instruction to perform multiply-add. The C compiler cannot use it
directly, because the expression 'x*y + z' is defined to round the
intermediate result. 'fma' lets you choose when you want to round
only once.
On processors which do not implement multiply-add in hardware,
'fma' can be very slow since it must avoid intermediate rounding.
'math.h' defines the symbols 'FP_FAST_FMA', 'FP_FAST_FMAF', and
'FP_FAST_FMAL' when the corresponding version of 'fma' is no slower
than the expression 'x*y + z'. In the GNU C Library, this always
means the operation is implemented in hardware.

File: libc.info, Node: Complex Numbers, Next: Operations on Complex, Prev: Arithmetic Functions, Up: Arithmetic
20.9 Complex Numbers
====================
ISO C99 introduces support for complex numbers in C. This is done with a
new type qualifier, 'complex'. It is a keyword if and only if
'complex.h' has been included. There are three complex types,
corresponding to the three real types: 'float complex', 'double
complex', and 'long double complex'.
To construct complex numbers you need a way to indicate the imaginary
part of a number. There is no standard notation for an imaginary
floating point constant. Instead, 'complex.h' defines two macros that
can be used to create complex numbers.
-- Macro: const float complex _Complex_I
This macro is a representation of the complex number "0+1i".
Multiplying a real floating-point value by '_Complex_I' gives a
complex number whose value is purely imaginary. You can use this
to construct complex constants:
3.0 + 4.0i = 3.0 + 4.0 * _Complex_I
Note that '_Complex_I * _Complex_I' has the value '-1', but the
type of that value is 'complex'.
'_Complex_I' is a bit of a mouthful. 'complex.h' also defines a shorter
name for the same constant.
-- Macro: const float complex I
This macro has exactly the same value as '_Complex_I'. Most of the
time it is preferable. However, it causes problems if you want to
use the identifier 'I' for something else. You can safely write
#include <complex.h>
#undef I
if you need 'I' for your own purposes. (In that case we recommend
you also define some other short name for '_Complex_I', such as
'J'.)

File: libc.info, Node: Operations on Complex, Next: Parsing of Numbers, Prev: Complex Numbers, Up: Arithmetic
20.10 Projections, Conjugates, and Decomposing of Complex Numbers
=================================================================
ISO C99 also defines functions that perform basic operations on complex
numbers, such as decomposition and conjugation. The prototypes for all
these functions are in 'complex.h'. All functions are available in
three variants, one for each of the three complex types.
-- Function: double creal (complex double Z)
-- Function: float crealf (complex float Z)
-- Function: long double creall (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the real part of the complex number Z.
-- Function: double cimag (complex double Z)
-- Function: float cimagf (complex float Z)
-- Function: long double cimagl (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the imaginary part of the complex number Z.
-- Function: complex double conj (complex double Z)
-- Function: complex float conjf (complex float Z)
-- Function: complex long double conjl (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the conjugate value of the complex number Z.
The conjugate of a complex number has the same real part and a
negated imaginary part. In other words, 'conj(a + bi) = a + -bi'.
-- Function: double carg (complex double Z)
-- Function: float cargf (complex float Z)
-- Function: long double cargl (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the argument of the complex number Z. The
argument of a complex number is the angle in the complex plane
between the positive real axis and a line passing through zero and
the number. This angle is measured in the usual fashion and ranges
from -pi to pi.
'carg' has a branch cut along the negative real axis.
-- Function: complex double cproj (complex double Z)
-- Function: complex float cprojf (complex float Z)
-- Function: complex long double cprojl (complex long double Z)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX Safety
Concepts::.
These functions return the projection of the complex value Z onto
the Riemann sphere. Values with an infinite imaginary part are
projected to positive infinity on the real axis, even if the real
part is NaN. If the real part is infinite, the result is equivalent
to
INFINITY + I * copysign (0.0, cimag (z))

File: libc.info, Node: Parsing of Numbers, Next: System V Number Conversion, Prev: Operations on Complex, Up: Arithmetic
20.11 Parsing of Numbers
========================
This section describes functions for "reading" integer and
floating-point numbers from a string. It may be more convenient in some
cases to use 'sscanf' or one of the related functions; see *note
Formatted Input::. But often you can make a program more robust by
finding the tokens in the string by hand, then converting the numbers
one by one.
* Menu:
* Parsing of Integers:: Functions for conversion of integer values.
* Parsing of Floats:: Functions for conversion of floating-point
values.

File: libc.info, Node: Parsing of Integers, Next: Parsing of Floats, Up: Parsing of Numbers
20.11.1 Parsing of Integers
---------------------------
The 'str' functions are declared in 'stdlib.h' and those beginning with
'wcs' are declared in 'wchar.h'. One might wonder about the use of
'restrict' in the prototypes of the functions in this section. It is
seemingly useless but the ISO C standard uses it (for the functions
defined there) so we have to do it as well.
-- Function: long int strtol (const char *restrict STRING, char
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtol' ("string-to-long") function converts the initial part
of STRING to a signed integer, which is returned as a value of type
'long int'.
This function attempts to decompose STRING as follows:
* A (possibly empty) sequence of whitespace characters. Which
characters are whitespace is determined by the 'isspace'
function (*note Classification of Characters::). These are
discarded.
* An optional plus or minus sign ('+' or '-').
* A nonempty sequence of digits in the radix specified by BASE.
If BASE is zero, decimal radix is assumed unless the series of
digits begins with '0' (specifying octal radix), or '0x' or
'0X' (specifying hexadecimal radix); in other words, the same
syntax used for integer constants in C.
Otherwise BASE must have a value between '2' and '36'. If
BASE is '16', the digits may optionally be preceded by '0x' or
'0X'. If base has no legal value the value returned is '0l'
and the global variable 'errno' is set to 'EINVAL'.
* Any remaining characters in the string. If TAILPTR is not a
null pointer, 'strtol' stores a pointer to this tail in
'*TAILPTR'.
If the string is empty, contains only whitespace, or does not
contain an initial substring that has the expected syntax for an
integer in the specified BASE, no conversion is performed. In this
case, 'strtol' returns a value of zero and the value stored in
'*TAILPTR' is the value of STRING.
In a locale other than the standard '"C"' locale, this function may
recognize additional implementation-dependent syntax.
If the string has valid syntax for an integer but the value is not
representable because of overflow, 'strtol' returns either
'LONG_MAX' or 'LONG_MIN' (*note Range of Type::), as appropriate
for the sign of the value. It also sets 'errno' to 'ERANGE' to
indicate there was overflow.
You should not check for errors by examining the return value of
'strtol', because the string might be a valid representation of
'0l', 'LONG_MAX', or 'LONG_MIN'. Instead, check whether TAILPTR
points to what you expect after the number (e.g. ''\0'' if the
string should end after the number). You also need to clear ERRNO
before the call and check it afterward, in case there was overflow.
There is an example at the end of this section.
-- Function: long int wcstol (const wchar_t *restrict STRING, wchar_t
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstol' function is equivalent to the 'strtol' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstol' function was introduced in Amendment 1 of ISO C90.
-- Function: unsigned long int strtoul (const char *retrict STRING,
char **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtoul' ("string-to-unsigned-long") function is like 'strtol'
except it converts to an 'unsigned long int' value. The syntax is
the same as described above for 'strtol'. The value returned on
overflow is 'ULONG_MAX' (*note Range of Type::).
If STRING depicts a negative number, 'strtoul' acts the same as
STRTOL but casts the result to an unsigned integer. That means for
example that 'strtoul' on '"-1"' returns 'ULONG_MAX' and an input
more negative than 'LONG_MIN' returns ('ULONG_MAX' + 1) / 2.
'strtoul' sets ERRNO to 'EINVAL' if BASE is out of range, or
'ERANGE' on overflow.
-- Function: unsigned long int wcstoul (const wchar_t *restrict STRING,
wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoul' function is equivalent to the 'strtoul' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstoul' function was introduced in Amendment 1 of ISO C90.
-- Function: long long int strtoll (const char *restrict STRING, char
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtoll' function is like 'strtol' except that it returns a
'long long int' value, and accepts numbers with a correspondingly
larger range.
If the string has valid syntax for an integer but the value is not
representable because of overflow, 'strtoll' returns either
'LLONG_MAX' or 'LLONG_MIN' (*note Range of Type::), as appropriate
for the sign of the value. It also sets 'errno' to 'ERANGE' to
indicate there was overflow.
The 'strtoll' function was introduced in ISO C99.
-- Function: long long int wcstoll (const wchar_t *restrict STRING,
wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoll' function is equivalent to the 'strtoll' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstoll' function was introduced in Amendment 1 of ISO C90.
-- Function: long long int strtoq (const char *restrict STRING, char
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
'strtoq' ("string-to-quad-word") is the BSD name for 'strtoll'.
-- Function: long long int wcstoq (const wchar_t *restrict STRING,
wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoq' function is equivalent to the 'strtoq' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstoq' function is a GNU extension.
-- Function: unsigned long long int strtoull (const char *restrict
STRING, char **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtoull' function is related to 'strtoll' the same way
'strtoul' is related to 'strtol'.
The 'strtoull' function was introduced in ISO C99.
-- Function: unsigned long long int wcstoull (const wchar_t *restrict
STRING, wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoull' function is equivalent to the 'strtoull' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstoull' function was introduced in Amendment 1 of ISO C90.
-- Function: unsigned long long int strtouq (const char *restrict
STRING, char **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
'strtouq' is the BSD name for 'strtoull'.
-- Function: unsigned long long int wcstouq (const wchar_t *restrict
STRING, wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstouq' function is equivalent to the 'strtouq' function in
nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstouq' function is a GNU extension.
-- Function: intmax_t strtoimax (const char *restrict STRING, char
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtoimax' function is like 'strtol' except that it returns a
'intmax_t' value, and accepts numbers of a corresponding range.
If the string has valid syntax for an integer but the value is not
representable because of overflow, 'strtoimax' returns either
'INTMAX_MAX' or 'INTMAX_MIN' (*note Integers::), as appropriate for
the sign of the value. It also sets 'errno' to 'ERANGE' to
indicate there was overflow.
See *note Integers:: for a description of the 'intmax_t' type. The
'strtoimax' function was introduced in ISO C99.
-- Function: intmax_t wcstoimax (const wchar_t *restrict STRING,
wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoimax' function is equivalent to the 'strtoimax' function
in nearly all aspects but handles wide character strings.
The 'wcstoimax' function was introduced in ISO C99.
-- Function: uintmax_t strtoumax (const char *restrict STRING, char
**restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'strtoumax' function is related to 'strtoimax' the same way
that 'strtoul' is related to 'strtol'.
See *note Integers:: for a description of the 'intmax_t' type. The
'strtoumax' function was introduced in ISO C99.
-- Function: uintmax_t wcstoumax (const wchar_t *restrict STRING,
wchar_t **restrict TAILPTR, int BASE)
Preliminary: | MT-Safe locale | AS-Safe | AC-Safe | *Note POSIX
Safety Concepts::.
The 'wcstoumax' function is equivalent to the 'strtoumax' function