mm: memcontrol: fix cgroup creation failure after many small jobs

The memory controller has quite a bit of state that usually outlives the
cgroup and pins its CSS until said state disappears.  At the same time
it imposes a 16-bit limit on the CSS ID space to economically store IDs
in the wild.  Consequently, when we use cgroups to contain frequent but
small and short-lived jobs that leave behind some page cache, we quickly
run into the 64k limitations of outstanding CSSs.  Creating a new cgroup
fails with -ENOSPC while there are only a few, or even no user-visible
cgroups in existence.

Although pinning CSSs past cgroup removal is common, there are only two
instances that actually need an ID after a cgroup is deleted: cache
shadow entries and swapout records.

Cache shadow entries reference the ID weakly and can deal with the CSS
having disappeared when it's looked up later.  They pose no hurdle.

Swap-out records do need to pin the css to hierarchically attribute
swapins after the cgroup has been deleted; though the only pages that
remain swapped out after offlining are tmpfs/shmem pages.  And those
references are under the user's control, so they are manageable.

This patch introduces a private 16-bit memcg ID and switches swap and
cache shadow entries over to using that.  This ID can then be recycled
after offlining when the CSS remains pinned only by objects that don't
specifically need it.

This script demonstrates the problem by faulting one cache page in a new
cgroup and deleting it again:

  set -e
  mkdir -p pages
  for x in `seq 128000`; do
    [ $((x % 1000)) -eq 0 ] && echo $x
    mkdir /cgroup/foo
    echo $$ >/cgroup/foo/cgroup.procs
    echo trex >pages/$x
    echo $$ >/cgroup/cgroup.procs
    rmdir /cgroup/foo

When run on an unpatched kernel, we eventually run out of possible IDs
even though there are no visible cgroups:

  [root@ham ~]# ./
  mkdir: cannot create directory '/cgroup/foo': No space left on device

After this patch, the IDs get released upon cgroup destruction and the
cache and css objects get released once memory reclaim kicks in.

[ init the IDR]
Fixes: b2052564e66d ("mm: memcontrol: continue cache reclaim from offlined groups")
Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <>
Reported-by: John Garcia <>
Reviewed-by: Vladimir Davydov <>
Acked-by: Tejun Heo <>
Cc: Nikolay Borisov <>
Cc: <>	[3.19+]
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
3 files changed